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Global marketing case study questions

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L#8217;essai litteraire, devant le temps. Global Marketing Study! Le style de verite accessible a l#8217;essai est perceptible dans son mode de circulation, les souvenirs que l#8217;on en garde, la facon dont on the necklace by guy demaupassant, le resume, bref, l#8217;usage que l#8217;on en fait. Case Questions! Ce memorable de l#8217;essai tient a une pratique generalisee de la citation ; les essayistes partent de formes « citables », comme d#8217;autant de pensees heritees et de savoirs doxaux ou paradoxaux qu#8217;ils exploitent, developpent ou fragilisent ; et ils en produisent a leur tour, offrant non pas des modeles applicables mais des cas remobilisables, des pensees desormais disponibles. Essay Contest For 7th Graders! Cette disponibilite identifie une pratique intellectuelle, les objets qu#8217;elle fait naitre (cette forme sensible que prennent dans un essai les operations de l#8217;esprit), un rythme propre a toute individualite pensante, bref une facon qu#8217;a la prose d#8217;idees de se situer devant le temps . Marketing! Elle explique aussi la colere suscitee dans le monde du savoir contemporain par un genre profondement temporel, c#8217;est-a-dire rythme, situe, mais aussi precaire et soupconnable a cet egard d#8217;anachronisme. Essay! Lo stile di verita accessibile al saggio e percettibile nel modo in global marketing case questions cui il testo circola, nei ricordi che ne abbiamo, nella maniera in essay contest for 7th graders cui ne facciamo riassunto, cioe nell#8217;uso che possiamo averne. Global Marketing Case! Questo aspetto #8220;memorabile#8221; del saggio e legato ad una prattica generalizzata della citazione. Contest Graders! I saggisti partono di forme #8220;citabili#8221;, pensieri ereditati, saperi comuni o paradossali che loro mettono a prova, sviluppano, o fragilizzano; e ne producono a sua volta, non per global case offrire modelli da applicare, ma casi da mobilizzare, pensieri ormai disponibili. Questa disponibilita definisce una pratica intellettuale, gli oggetti che essa fa nascere (questa forma sensibile che prendono nel saggio le operazioni mentali), un ritmo legato ad ogni individualita nell#8217;atto di pensare, un modo di porsi davanti al tempo . For 7th Graders! Spiega anche l#8217;irritazione suscitata nel mondo del sapere moderno da questo genere profondamente temporale, con il suo ritmo singolare, la sua situazione culturale, ma anche la sua precarieta e, di conseguenza, il sospetto di anacronismo che lo accompagna. Marketing Questions! 1 Adorno rapporte dans un celebre texte consacre a la forme de l’essai1 la colere suscitee dans le monde de la recherche ou du savoir par la legerete de ce genre, son vague, sa desinvolture, ou encore sa mondanite. Is A Paragraph Papers! Cette colere, ou cette deception savante, est nourrie par la difficulte des essayistes a repondre a ce que Barthes aurait considere comme une question mechante : quel est le savoir propre a l’essai, que nous apprend-il, que dit-il qui ne se dirait pas ailleurs ? Cette question est a prendre au serieux, car on questions, ne doit pas supposer une sorte d’intelligence intrinseque a l’essai, et c’est la un des principaux ecueils des reflexions qui lui sont consacres.

Quel est donc le savoir, ou plutot, et je m’expliquerai sur cette expression, le style de verite accessible a l’essai ? Il est utile, pour repondre a cette question, de s’interesser aux querelles qu’il engendre2, revelatrices de la colere decrite par Adorno. Marketing Case Study Questions! De Benda a Bourdieu ou a Sokal, l’irritation s’est significativement accentuee, dans un siecle ou l’essai, largement reinstitue dans l’espace litteraire francais3 designe une veritable situation dans la culture. Global Study! Cette situation doit etre decrite en termes agoniques ; elle tient a une concurrence nouvelle entre sciences et litterature, concurrence aux armes diversement distribuees mais constamment affirmee au long du siecle ; car on for 7th graders, ecrit un essai contre une position savante, et cette concurrence definit une periode homogene qui va, grossierement, de Peguy a Barthes. Questions! Si les disciplines se sont longtemps cherche des territoires, la periode contemporaine est en revanche marquee par une querelle de propriete ; l’affirmation des sciences de l’homme a ete percue comme la confiscation d’un ensemble de domaines jusqu’ici reserves a la litterature : dans un espace litteraire autonomise, le rapport du style et de la connaissance est de plus en plus difficile, un sentiment d’incompatibilite entre ecriture et savoir s’est impose, et un risque d’obsolescence a marque l’evolution de la prose d’idees depuis la fin du xix e siecle. The Necklace Essay! 2 La replique des essayistes modernes a consiste en l’affirmation d’un style de pensee propre a la tradition litteraire francaise, et a l’illustration de l’essai comme chef-d’?uvre de son histoire. Global Marketing Questions! L’essai incarnait une tentative de reconquete du territoire de la reflexion, une reponse specifiquement litteraire a de nouvelles « inquietudes » intellectuelles (le mot est omnipresent dans le premier tiers du siecle), et le maintien de la litterature dans la construction des idees partageables qui font l’assise d’une culture. La reponse systematiquement faite aux sommations de la science, en particulier au xx e siecle celles des sciences humaines, tient en effet a l’affirmation d’une singularite de la pratique de la « pensee », mot pascalien, bergsonien, mot d’allure litteraire ; une pensee qui ne serait justement pas un savoir, une pratique intellectuelle decrochee de ses implications epistemologiques. The Necklace Demaupassant! Comment la definir ? Je crois qu’il faut, pour le faire, se tourner vers la question des usages . Case Questions! Car la forme que prend cette pensee sans savoir est perceptible dans le mode de circulation, les souvenirs que l’on garde d’un essai, ce que l’on en retient, ce que l’on en cite, la facon dont on questions, le resume, bref, la facon dont on marketing study, s’en sert. Global Questions! Le genre de l’essai trouve dans ces usages une identite qui tient a la fois, on global, va le voir, a une pratique intellectuelle (un geste, une directionnalite), a une certaine realite mentale (la forme concrete, la forme sensible que prend dans un essai une operation de l’esprit et les objets qu’elle fait naitre), a un rythme ou un phrase propres a toute individualite pensante, bref a une facon de se tenir devant le temps. Essay 12 Hours! 3 Partons d’une citation un peu enigmatique de Walter Benjamin, qui dispose face a face quelque chose comme deux personnalites mentales, deux facons d’user de ce qui est offert a notre experience intellectuelle, existentielle et sensible : « Certains rendent les choses transmissibles (tels les collectionneurs, natures conservatrices), d’autres rendent les situations exploitables, et pour ainsi dire citables : ce sont les caracteres destructifs » 4 . Case Study Questions! Il me semble en effet que les essayistes travaillent essentiellement avec du « citable », avec de bons exemples, en termes plus temporels avec du « memorable », ou encore avec des « lieux communs », (en bonne part, si l’on songe avec Paulhan aux qualites de l’invention rhetorique ; ou en mauvaise part, puisqu’il peut y avoir aussi une betise, ou du moins une paresse, et pas seulement une elegance de l’essai) autrement dit avec ce que l’on peut appeler, en empruntant cette expression a Roland Barthes, des « idees – phrases », : « J’avais la tete pleine de Nietzsche , que je venais de lire ; mais ce que je desirais, ce que je voulais capter, c’etait un chant – d’idees-phrases : l’influence etait purement prosodique » 5 . Questions! 4 C’est sans doute cela que l’on retient d’un essai, ce que l’on y cherche, et la facon dont on global case questions, s’en sert une fois le livre referme. Qualifying Research! Les essayistes partent de ces formes citables, comme d'autant de pensees heritees et de savoirs partages qu'ils exploitent, qu’ils developpent, qu’ils regenerent, mais aussi, plus souvent (et il faut ici donner tout son echo au « caractere destructif » de Benjamin) qu’ils fragilisent ou qu'ils mettent en derive ; car ces « idees-phrases », liaisons indissolubles d’un sujet et d’un objet, ont ete vecues comme irreductibles aux disciplines constituees.

Et les auteurs en produisent a leur tour, offrant non pas des modeles applicables mais justement des cas remobilisables, des situations rehabitables ; la prose d'essais se definirait en cela, pour reprendre une expression de Pascal au sujet de Montaigne, Pascal qui defendait Montaigne contre Malebranche, comme ce « qui demeure le plus dans la memoire et qui se fait le mieux citer » 6 . Case Study! 5 L’essai importe autant que le roman a nos vies, a nos affects et a nos conduites ; pourtant on books of essays, ne lit pas un essai comme on global questions, lit un roman ; l’emportement, la projection, l’immersion meme peuvent etre aussi intenses, si l’on a le gout des idees, mais l’attitude du lecteur differe ; on contest for 7th, lit volontiers un essai un crayon a la main, on global marketing, souligne, on marketing case, extrait, bien plus que dans un roman – car la fiction peut meduser. Global Case Study! Les bons exemples, ces combles d’images ou ces paradoxes produits par l’essai ont pour point commun d’etre decoupables, extraits du flux du texte pour constituer celui de la culture collective. Paper! Il s’agit, comme disait Barthes, de « lire en levant la tete », dans une lecture « a la fois irrespectueuse, puisqu’elle coupe le texte, et eprise, puisqu’elle y revient et s’en nourrit »7. Case! Le texte est rythme par la cristallisation de ces idees-phrases, appele a etre lu par re-prelevement de formules ; il suscite un comportement utilitariste et predateur, produit des idees qui nous seront desormais utiles, comme de nouvelles cases mentales, ou pour le dire plus souplement, comme de nouvelles dispositions ; le maitre-mot ici, sera en effet celui de disponibilite . The Necklace By Guy Essay Topics! 6 Si le lecteur souligne le texte, c’est que ce texte est lui-meme ecrit pour etre souligne ; il identifie ses propres moments de densification, de cristallisation au present de ce qui sera memorable. Barthes precisait qu’il avait des pensees « a meme la langue » ; Sartre, plus explicite encore, interroge sur la facon dont naissaient ses idees, repondait : « Mes idees naissent comme des phrases a ecrire »8, expliquant l’importance du style formulaire dans la dynamique de sa reflexion, precisant meme que l’ecriture philosophique relevait chez lui de l’expulsion d’un trop plein de pensees : il s’agit de se debarrasser d’idees concues comme des boursouflures ou, plus vilainement encore, comme des « hernies » avant qu’elles ne gatent ses projets proprement litteraires ; Sartre s’est d’ailleurs souvent tourmente au sujet de son talent formulaire, regrettant par exemple que la doctrine de l’existentialisme ait ete reduite par ses lecteurs a l’une des dernieres phrases, memorables par excellence, de L’Etre et le neant : « l’homme est une passion inutile » ; elle avait justement quelque chose de trop memorable, c’est-a-dire de trop bien incarne. Case! 7 L’occurrence du citable, c’est en effet le temps de la cristallisation, de la production au present de ce qui sera memorable ; comme si l’essai creait a la fois l’evenement de pensee et son stockage, puisque le lecteur pourra s’approprier dans sa globalite, dans sa cohesion, cette bonne image, comme ce detail commente par Barthes, qui parle de l’importance de faire entrer un concret sensible dans ce qu’il appelait le « murmure de l’intellect » ; le profit qu’il designe est, tout a fait clairement, un profit de prelevement, de citation, une disponibilite intellectuelle gagnee sur la fatigue : « Ne suffit-il pas de faire passer dans le discours critique un “rond bleuatre de fumee” pour vous donner le courage, tout simplement… de le recopier ? »9. Essay! Cette logique d’appropriation est evidemment nee avec Montaigne, dont l’ecriture etait faite d’arrachements feconds, d’anachronismes necessaires, et dont les Essais presentaient a leur tour une disponibilite hermeneutique telle qu’ils ont ete l’objet de nombreuses operations de chirurgie editoriale. Questions! 8 La citation des phrases d’autrui, dont tout essayiste a le gout, designe cette sollicitation des pensees « bonnes pour ecrire » comme disait Valery. Qualifying! Une meme sensibilite aux phrases associe d’ailleurs pour quelqu’un comme Barthes les reussites du roman et celles de l’essai. Marketing Case! « Maquette de phrase » ou « maquette du raisonnement »10, l’enonce essayiste a sa propre brillance et sa propre force de veridiction.

Car aux yeux de Barthes la forme prouve, particulierement lorsqu’elle est breve, qu’elle frappe une idee en maxime et qu’elle fonctionne, par consequent, comme « un inducteur de verite »11. Qualifying Paper! La concretion de la pensee dans la langue est ce qui promet de faire durer ces pensees : « Ce que la memoire doit preserver, ce n’est pas la chose, c’est son retour, car ce retour a deja quelque chose d’une forme – d’une phrase »12. Marketing Study Questions! La litterature, souligne un Barthes qui decide en cela de l’echelle de style accessible a l’essai, est l’ordre des Phrases ; chaque phrase est un « depot de la litterature » et lui promet son avenir, « comme si la Notatio (le fait de noter) permettait de se souvenir sur-le-champ »13. Write 12 Hours! Voila redefinies, comme bonheur d’ecriture et inscription dans le temps de la culture, la fabrique topique qui est au c?ur de l’essai, cette facon qu’ont les essayistes de vivre leur culture comme une memoire. Marketing Case Questions! 9 En effet on 12 hours, ne garde pas le meme souvenir, on marketing case study questions, ne remobilise pas de la meme facon un essai et un roman, qui ne se rendent pas disponibles, justement, sous des formes identiques. For 7th! Lorsque Julien Gracq cite ce qui lui reste de La Chartreuse de Parme , il enumere quelques scenes de hauteur, qui seraient des concentres de romanesque ou des provocations au desir, et medite sur le processus de simplification, de recomposition, de reequilibrage qu’entraine le travail de la memoire : « Il faudrait comparer entre eux les souvenirs que gardent a distance d’une meme ?uvre des lecteurs exerces et de bonne foi, leur faire raconter de memoire a leur idee le livre – ou plutot ce qu’il en reste, toute reference au texte omise – noter la recurrence plus ou moins reguliere du naufrage de pans entiers qui ont sombre dans le souvenir, de point d’ignition au contraire qui continuent a l’irradier, et a la lumiere desquels l’ouvrage se recompose tout autrement »14.

10 Soumis a cette epreuve du souvenir, un essai (d’ailleurs difficilement resumable, a la difference d’un assemblage clairement assertif de theses) offrirait sans doute autant d’evenements ou de passions qu’un roman, mais sous une autre forme, celle de discours migrateurs, de precipites d’idees, d’images frappantes, de formules exemplaires, transformation des donnees de la culture frappees en arguments et desormais citables : du Degre zero de l’ecriture il nous reste au moins « l’ecriture blanche » ; et de La Trahison des clercs , peut-etre juste un titre, mais qui tient a lui seul un discours sur l’Histoire ; de La Chambre claire , quelques mots, sous la forme de la cartographie d’une idee ( studium et punctum ) et surtout un scenario « vaguement proustien », comme disait Michel Charles, qui culmine sur un bon exemple dont tout le monde de souvient, la photographie du Jardin d’hiver. Global Case! Tout essai reussi met en circulation dans le temps des enonces qui valent le general et comblent une idee, et que leurs derives successives convertissent en formes doxales ou paradoxales, autrement dit des topiques. Write! De l’amitie , De l’amour , L’Etre et le neant , nous offrent tous ces ressources : au chapitre de l’amitie, chacun pourra remobiliser cette formule « Parce que c’etait lui, parce que c’etait moi » ; sur le theme du coup de foudre, un rameau dans les mines de sel de Salzbourg ; au sujet de la mauvaise foi, il suffit de rappeler un garcon de cafe pour s’entendre sur une idee partagee et sur un tableau sensible. Case Study Questions! Le « traitre » de Peguy, « l’horloge » de Bergson, la « depense » de Bataille : autant de concretions memorables de savoir et de style emboites l’un dans l’autre que le lecteur souligne, et qui pourront desormais lui servir d’agents de liaison ou de raccourcis de pensee. Books Of Essays Collection! C’est ce que Judith Schlanger15, meditant sur l’invention conceptuelle ou la nouveaute intellectuelle, a decrit comme une « reserve de diction » : une idee neuve, c’est non seulement un acces, une voie pour la reflexion, mais c’est aussi, et pour cela meme, ce qui permet de parler autrement. Global Marketing Case Study! A ce titre, l’invention de pensee participe directement de la « memoire des ?uvres ». 11 La mesure de l’essai, au moins dans son destin moderne, serait alors dans ce mouvement ou le discours ne se fixe ni dans la singularite evenementielle propre au recit, ni dans la concatenation d’abstraits propre au traite, mais dans un ordre median, qui est dans le mouvement de la generalisation, du mouvement vers le general d’idees qui doivent porter un peu plus qu’elles-memes, un peu plus que ce qu’elles sont ; un ordre situe entre le general et le particulier qui est celui des bons exemples, echantillons ou paradigmes, que la rhetorique pensait autrefois via les methodes et les valeurs de la Topique, via la question des lieux communs16. Paper! 12 A partir des annees 1910 tout essai apparait a la limite comme un art rhetorique idiosyncrasique, une « composition de lieu » originale, une methode de discours qui n’aura marche qu’une fois, une science de l’objet unique comme le souhaitera Barthes. Global Questions! Cela a ete une obsession de l’epoque que de definir les figures de savoir et les modalites mentales d’invention de la pensee pour remplacer un art oublie, ou passe a la betise de la mecanique ou de la repetition – la rhetorique flaubertisee, si l’on veut. Write 12 Hours! Chaque essayiste reinvente, interiorise, intimise, l’antique methode des lieux communs sur laquelle s’appuyait aussi la fonction rhetorique de la memoria : les dissociations de Remy de Gourmont, les recroisements ou les connexites de Peguy, le germe de Valery, ce qui fait se rejoindre Breton et Gracq autour de la question hegelienne de la cristallisation… On peut regarder toutes ces figures comme autant de deplacements et de reinventions radicales de la topique, retournee comme un gant, le nom d’une methode ou, pour le dire avec les mots de Blanchot, « la rhetorique devenue matiere ». Global Marketing Study Questions! 13 Forger un lieu commun, ce peut etre en effet simplement donner un bon representant, une image si bien frappee qu’elle donne le sentiment de la necessite, cette experience apodictique du vrai que Barthe definit par cette formule qui revient sans cesse dans les dernieres annees : « C’est ca, c’est exactement ca ! ». Demaupassant Topics! Lorsque Paulhan cite un ecriteau du Jardin public de Tarbes, qu’il l’extrait de son lieu d’origine (ou l’invente) pour voir en lui « toute la litterature »17, c’est la formulation d’une idee autonome, qui est entree comme telle en circulation dans la critique et dans la culture francaise.

Avec cet incipit des Fleurs de Tarbes , Paulhan n’a pas exactement produit un savoir , qui eut ete autrement formulable (son essai d’ailleurs tres difficile ne produit pas de these, ne fixe pas de formule conclusive, compliquant constamment ses conclusions, et arretant brusquement le mouvement de la pensee, on global study, s’en souvient, par cette sorte de desertion finale : « Mettons enfin que je n’aie rien dit »), mais il cree une figure, transportable, ouverte a l’appropriation. What Is A About In Research! 14 La creation d’une telle « situation » (c’etait le mot de Benjamin et evidemment aussi celui de Sartre), la production d’une situation de pensee dans l’essai rend precisement la regle, la loi ou la verite dont on global study questions, a l’intuition inseparable de son incarnation, elle fait du concret la metonymie du vrai (allegorisation sensible et generalisee de la pensee, dirait peut-etre Michel Deguy) : il ne s’agit pas d’une loi applicable, mais d’un cas memorable. Write Essay! Le Jardin de Paulhan ne peut pas etre universalise ; s’il represente toute la litterature, et dans la litterature la dialectique moderne de terreur et de rhetorique qui en fait aux yeux de Paulhan le moteur (puisque c’est cette idee qui a trouve son nom avec Les Fleurs de Tarbes ), c’est pour cette fois seulement. Study Questions! Mais si le savoir de l’essai ne vaut qu’une fois du point de vue de la theorie, en revanche il fait date dans l’ordre de la culture, il acquiert un statut d’evenement, a la fois plus incarne et plus disponible – reexploitable, habitable a la maniere d’une petite scene mentale – qu’un concept. Global Marketing! L’exemple de Paulhan est en effet si bien choisi qu’il a fini par constituer le nom propre d’un probleme, associant durablement deux idees, terreur et rhetorique, et donnant a cette association un visage concret, sensible (rappelons qu’Aristote definissait l’exemple comme le « corps de la preuve »), le visage d’un jardin. Marketing Study Questions! Le bon exemple, c’est cette image qui survit en nous comme une verite, a la maniere d’une verite, avec le meme type de disponibilite, et avec la meme personnalite stylistique. The Necklace Demaupassant Topics! Cette personnalite stylistique et cette ouverture a la circulation me semblent definir avec justesse les objets et surtout les pratiques propres a la prose pensante, car elles les definissent dans le temps. Marketing Study Questions! 15 Ce genre d’objets intellectuels scande en effet le tempo de l’essai. By Guy Demaupassant Essay! Ils scandent d’abord son rythme – les vitesses de sa prose, c’est la question qui a tant preoccupe Bergson et Sartre. Global Marketing! « Toutes les phrases de la prose, explique Sartre dans L’Idiot de la famille , ont des vitesses : on write essay, passe a l’imaginaire des qu’on se prete au mouvement »18.

Une certaine cadence est en effet necessaire a l’essai : comme un cycliste, l’essayiste tombe s’il n’atteint pas une certaine vitesse – je parlerais en effet de vitesse, plutot que de brievete ou de fragmentation. D’ou ces alternances, comme on marketing case, en trouve chez Peguy, entre le temps long de la speculation, des variations, des tatonnements, et le moment de la cristallisation stylistique et conceptuelle que j’ai essaye d’identifier, ces bouffees discontinues, ces bifurcations, ces changements de potentiel entre affirmations (souvent excessives, comme la prose constamment conclusive de Sartre) et errances (a la facon du « romanesque » barthesien de l’idee, en recul a l’egard de la necessite d’asserter), entre coups de force et patience, qui sont aussi des facons de prendre ses distances par rapport a la conduite du discours serieux. The Necklace Essay Topics! Exemplaire de l’ethos agile de l’essayiste, Valery Larbaud se representait le Dr Johnson comme un ecrivain sans rythme, sans marche, « la pensee tout alourdie d’eloquence »19. Marketing! De meme dans un dialogue qu’il imaginait en 1935 entre le sociologue et l’essayiste, Ramon Fernandez definissait l’essayiste – sa prose et sa pensee – par ce besoin de rythme et par la colere que la vitesse fait naitre ; il fait donc parler le sociologue contre l’essayiste : « Passe encore pour le poete, qui produit de la beaute, passe encore pour le romancier, qui nous divertit, mais l’essayiste nous irrite. 12 Hours! Qu’est-ce que cet homme qui d’un coup de reins bondit aux conclusions20 ? ». Marketing Case Questions! 16 L’essai apparait a ce titre comme un genre presse, ou plutot infidele, toujours pret a repondre aux sollicitations du monde, aux occasions de l’experience, un individu dont la pensee » se tiendrait, a la maniere stendhalienne qui seduisait tant Sartre et Barthes, dans le champ du bonheur ; c’est ce qu’a suggere Francoise Gaillard en mettant l’accent sur cette etonnante declaration d’Adorno : l’essayiste « se plaint en silence de ce que la verite a trahi le bonheur »21. L’ecrivain d’idees escamote vitalement le long passage qui devrait aller de l’intuition, c’est-a-dire de la naissance de l’idee, a sa demonstration ; on of essays, trouve sans cesse dans l’essai des remises a plus tard d’un developpements, des procrastinations (songeons a tous les « projets » de Barthes), la multiplication d’amorces, une eternelle inchoativite, une hardiesse du propos, une pratique de l’allusion ; cette vitesse peut avoir, du point de vue d’une responsabilite du discours, son envers : un degagement a l’egard de l’assertion, le refus de considerer que ce que l’on dit vous soit tout a fait imputable. Marketing Study Questions! Autant de traits qui accelerent le tempo du texte, mais aussi qui le situent, car ils presentent sa relation a la science en termes d’impertinence et d’accelerations, dans un savoir fait de reseaux d’associations, de montages mobiles, d’insuffisances declarees. The Necklace By Guy! 17 Cette vitesse vient aussi evidemment du raccourci fourni par les citations , qui sont ce qui circule le mieux de l’ecriture a la lecture d’un essai – citations de premiere, de deuxieme, de troisieme main… ; les citations sont des foyers de sens, des condenses de signification qui abregent le parcours entre la pensee et les choses ou entre la pensee et les references.

La citation est, pour l’avenir d’une pensee, ce qui permettra desormais d’aller plus vite, temps de l’opportunite et de la saisie22. Global Marketing Study Questions! Elle renferme dans l’essai une veritable puissance energetique, qui en accelere le debit. Global Study! C’est pourquoi l’essayiste, comme Proust ou comme Gide, cite de memoire, donne rarement des notes, cite parfois mal ; car il a sa bibliotheque dans ses poches, ses ecrivains preferes et ses pensees de derriere la tete ; la paresse de l’essayiste a citer toujours la meme chose, qui met en colere ou rejouit, fait aussi de lui le representant ideal, dans la culture, des situations a memoire qui rendent celle-ci transmissible ; c’est le meilleur exemple d’une bibliotheque interiorisee. 18 En effet, cette dynamique du citable decide aussi de l’inscription de l’essai dans une temporalite culturelle qui l’englobe et le depasse. Marketing Case Questions! La memoire sedimentee et mobile d’idees que l’essayiste releve, preleve, destabilise, il s’agit pour lui d’en brasser la valeur, de changer ses centrages, et cette sorte de « gestion » (si l’on veut bien accepter ce mot) de la memoire culturelle est l’une des affaires essentielle des essayistes, en cela hyper-lecteurs plus encore qu’ecrivains. Qualifying Paper! Cette circulation des topiques est une forme singuliere de temporalisation du vrai, sur le temps long d’une culture commune, de ce que Patrick Mauries appelle « l’assise de [nos] idees »23, precisement construite par l’enchainement des essais : dans les figures de l’essai se depose une duree ; c’est toute la question de l’integration des objets de pensee a la chaine temporelle. Global Marketing Questions! Chaque nouvel essai fera-t-il la difference dans l’ordre de la culture, sera-t-il un evenement ou une reiteration ? Les transformations sont rares, et l’essai reste a la mesure de l’essayiste. Books Collection! Pour un genre non narratif, cette production topique est en tout cas une veritable mise en intrigue de la pensee, son romanesque propre.

19 Ces figures que j’ai rapidement esquissees (le souvenir, la reconnaissance du vrai dans sa forme d’evidence, la vitesse, le tempo culturel…), toutes ces qualites qui me semblent propres a la prose de l’essai, constituent une reponse a l’injonction formulee entre autres par Bergson pour la philosophie du XXe siecle, mais qui avait une portee sans aucun doute plus large, celle de trouver une ecriture de la pensee qui n’escamote pas les effets de la duree. Global Marketing Case Study Questions! L’essai est en effet profondement temporel, c’est-a-dire a la fois situe (dans un repertoire de topiques propres a une communaute culturelle), precaire (dans l’ordre de la methode ou de l’autorite), et rythme. Essay 12 Hours! 20 Plus pres de nous, j’en trouve un tres bel exemple dans un essai recent de Pierre Pachet dont on case questions, comprendra vite la solidarite avec ce qui vient d’etre developpe ; cet essai s’intitule « Avoir des idees »24, il decrit ou plutot raconte l’evenement que constituent pour un individu, dans son propre temps et dans son propre corps, la naissance, la croissance, et le fait de porter au public une idee. Nous suivons sous sa plume le cheminement de la pensee a l’interieur du sujet, la vie de cette pensee qui se poursuit en lui et hors de lui. Is A Closing Paragraph About Papers! L’evenement de l’idee, enleve de ce point de vue sur un fond necessaire d’ennui ou d’attente, c’est-a-dire dans le temps, est une emotion ; la sensation des idees surgissantes, des idees possibles, change a elle seule « la tonalite du sentiment d’etre ». Marketing Case Study Questions! Decrite, a sa naissance, comme une « bouffee d’excitation », l’idee doit etre protegee, explique Pierre Pachet qui souligne la fragilite de « ce petit evenement mental sans lequel rien n’est possible, parce qu’il donne acces aux choses, aux choses de l’esprit comme aux choses du monde, un acces nouveau, interessant, qui fait battre le c?ur et donne de l’appetit »25. What Is A Paragraph In Research Papers! Maintenue dans son instabilite, associee a la chance et a l’ouverture de celui en qui elle se produit, l’idee penetre le mouvement de la vie interieure ; le vecu de l’essayiste est aussi sa pensee, non pas l’intelligence ivre d’elle-meme, mais ce va-et-vient fluide, souple, exemplaire, cette absence de partage entre l’experience enigmatiquement vecue et sa ressaisie litteraire. Questions! 21 Pierre Pachet ouvre d’ailleurs son essai sur cette declaration simple et forte : « La litterature est pour moi liee aux idees, a la capacite d’avoir des idees, et non au langage, a la langue. Study! Je le dis sans chercher a contredire l’opinion recue, sans la craindre non plus »26. Marketing Case Questions! La possibilite de l’essai suppose en effet une certaine representation de la litterature, la conviction que la pratique de la litterature a a voir avec une vie de la pensee, avec le fait d’avoir des idees. What Closing In Research! C’est cette confusion desirable, precisement, entre la litterature et l’exercice de la pensee qui a sous-tendu l’institution de l’essai comme genre au XXe siecle.

L’essai n’est pas ne au XXe siecle, mais une urgence nouvelle l’a attire au centre de l’espace litteraire, les ecritures de savoir affermissant une limite devant laquelle la litterature a du de plus en plus se definir ; de ce point de vue, il convient moins de se demander ce qu’a du devenir l’essai pour etre integre au c?ur de la litterature, comme s’il en avait jamais ete exclu, que de se demander ce qu’est devenue la litterature pour qu’il soit signifiant qu’elle compte l’essai parmi ses formes. Un soupcon d’anachronisme persiste depuis le debut du XXe siecle, comme si les ?uvres d’idees etaient desormais condamnees a courir derriere des disciplines savantes avec lesquelles elles ne partagent meme plus de frontiere. Global Marketing Case Study! 22 A un moment de son histoire, l’essai a constitue un foyer autour duquel a pu graviter la representation de la situation culturelle de la litterature, de sa modernite et de ses pouvoirs, en particulier de sa mise en concurrence avec les discours savants. For 7th! L’importance que prend dans l’essai la question du temps constituerait deja une reponse au probleme historique de sa reinvention, faite de declarations filiales et d’oublis arrangeants (l’essai est une forme heritee, heritee de Montaigne evidemment, un genre ne a son sommet, une forme dont la paternite importe, et se pense en termes de fidelite ou d’arrachements) et a ce soupcon de contretemps ou de retard constitutif de la pensee litteraire. Case Study Questions! Le souci de se placer dans le temps, le brassage continuel de la memoire litteraire, la redefinition de l’ancien par le nouveau, la vie des idees dans le milieu de la langue, la foi en une singularite du style d’idees identifient un moment a la fois triomphant et precaire de la prose francaise. Write Essay! De Peguy a Bataille, de Gourmont a Barthes, les ecrivains ont maintenu un equilibre fragile, que Gracq appelait « l’engagement de la pensee dans la forme » - « aussi assurement Nietzsche appartient a la litterature, aussi assurement Kant ne lui appartient pas »27, ajoutait-il pour clarifier l’evidence de cette superposition.

23 J’ai essaye de requalifier la legerete, la desinvolture, ou le vague, par lesquels j’ai ouvert ce bref parcours, en accentuant le besoin que recouvre l’essai de la reconnaissance, a cote des disciplines sans doute, d’une dimension sensible et presque sentimentale de la pensee. Case Questions! Au c?ur de l’essai, la culture devient une reserve existentielle, un reseau intime et partageable de citations que l’on s’est incorporees, et qui peut tenir lieu de vie. Essay Contest! La force d’un je rendu disponible, ou le lecteur peut se glisser, explique la dynamique du citable dans l’essai, car les idees y sont a la fois singularisees et profondement reenoncables28. Marketing Case Study Questions! Un « style de verite », disais-je plus haut : il y a en effet, dans la prose d’idee comme dans la demarche, les conduites, les attitudes, une certaine facon d’aller, d’accueillir ce qui vient, de se tenir devant les choses et dans le temps, un phrase singulier qui definit l’individualite d’une personne, ce qu’elle a en propre, une dimension existentielle absolument inalienable qui renvoie a un travail perpetuel de « stylisation de soi »29, ou l’on trouve en meme temps que l’on invente, ou l’on se trouve en meme temps que l’on s’invente. Marielle Mace , « L#8217;essai litteraire, devant le temps », Cahiers de Narratologie [En ligne], 14 | 2008, mis en ligne le 27 fevrier 2008, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Is A Paragraph About In Research! URL : http://narratologie.revues.org/499. Marketing Case Study! Normalienne, agregee de lettres, Marielle Mace est chercheur au CNRS (CRAL, CNRS-EHESS), specialiste de litterature francaise moderne, membre de l#8217;equipe Fabula, et enseigne a l#8217;ENS et a l#8217;EHESS. Essay Contest! Elle a publie notamment Le Temps de l#8217;essai.

Histoire d'un genre en France au XXe siecle (Belin, « L#8217;extreme contemporain », 2006), Le Savoir des genres (La Licorne, 2007), Le Genre litteraire (Garnier-Flammarion, 2004) et Barthes, au lieu du roman (Desjonqueres-Nota Bene, 2002). Marketing Study! Elle prepare actuellement un ouvrage consacre a l#8217;usage des recits et aux experiences esthetiques sartriennes : L'Emotion narrative, Sartre et les aventures . Of Essays Collection! Espace du recit, recit de l’espace en contexte germanique 31 | 2016. Marketing! Serialite narrative. What Is A Paragraph About Papers! Enjeux esthetiques et economiques 30 | 2016. Street Art 2 29 | 2015. Global Case! Street Art 1 28 | 2015. Essay! Le recit comme acte cognitif 27 | 2014. Marketing! Les bifurcations du recit interactif: continuite ou rupture? 26 | 2014. Essay! Nouvelles frontieres du recit.

Au-dela de l’opposition entre factuel et fictionnel 25 | 2013. Marketing Case Questions! Humour et modernite dans les litteratures de langues romanes du XIXe au XXIe siecle 24 | 2013. Of Essays Collection! Avant-gardes et litterature narrative 23 | 2012. Global Study! Le sujet et l’art dans la prose francaise contemporaine (1990-2012) 22 | 2012. Voix off et narration cinematographique. Essay 12 Hours! Second volet 21 | 2011. Questions! Rencontres de narrativites : perspectives sur l'intrigue musicale 20 | 2011. What About! Voix off et narration cinematographique 19 | 2010. Global! Images composites, arts pluriels 18 | 2010.

Litterature et sciences 17 | 2009. Books Of Essays! Stereotype et narration litteraire 16 | 2009. Marketing Case Study! Images et recits 15 | 2008. Write 12 Hours! Recits et genres historiques 14 | 2008. Prose d'idees : formes et savoirs 13 | 2006.

Nouvelles approches de l'intertextualite 12 | 2005. Case Study! Recit et ethique 11 | 2004. Essay For 7th! Figures de la lecture et du lecteur 10.1 | 2001. Global Marketing Questions! ISSN electronique 1765-307X. Informations Titre : Cahiers de Narratologie Analyse et theorie narratives En bref : Revue dediee a l'etude des genres narratifs et a la production de recits et d'objets culturels.

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laying out an essay Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is writing, in particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the marketing case, early weeks to qualifying research, the very end of your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Global Study Questions. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating. Write Essay. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and global marketing case study persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and it is obvious that the way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and failure - in which case you will have to think again.

In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the of essays collection, basic skills and methods are in the main common to all forms of formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to global marketing case study questions, be presented. The focus here is primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of books collection, literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Some of the following may be obvious, but the marketing study questions, points need to qualifying, be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Global Marketing Case Study Questions. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by marketing study questions, indiscriminate underlining and global case questions the use of different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of quotations in vermilion are pointless.

We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at the level of the sentence, of marketing case study questions, course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at global study the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to write 12 hours, your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Marketing Questions. Examine the introduction to this booklet and this guide to global case study, get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and global marketing constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear.

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You should not assume that an essay has to include and of essays collection cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and questions structured essay focusing on essay some of the global questions, main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about write essay everything. You may find it useful to global case study questions, state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Write. Keep your reader informed of the development of global marketing study questions, your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about books of essays them. Make sure the global case study questions, relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and what is a closing paragraph about papers linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and global case study questions write, so start to think about it and of essays do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to global questions, take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write).

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Computers are essential in terms of essay contest for 7th, using the time you spend on case questions an essay efficiently and what papers productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in case study, mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to paragraph in research papers, learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is marketing case, limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to write, find out where there are available computer terminals. Global Study. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on of essays the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is global marketing study, appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to write 12 hours, learn word-processing skills.

Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Global Marketing Case Questions. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to topics, do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . It will include only points which are relevant to global, the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. What About In Research. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the global marketing case study questions, points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay to move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the of essays, points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . Case Study Questions. '. After each draft of the what is a about in research papers, essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay?

Do you need to marketing study, expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the by guy, whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Global Marketing Case Questions. Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is being used then don't mention it.

You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of write 12 hours, 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the global case, literature you are working on is a paragraph about in research papers or from global, secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the write essay, work you want by study, itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to research paper, leave quotations hanging in marketing, mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to qualifying research, be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by marketing case questions, the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material.

This is often likely to books collection, be the marketing case study questions, case as there is really little point in by guy topics, including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an marketing case, argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read.

One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Case. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and global questions words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide). Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the demaupassant, prior arguments. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an global marketing case study questions, essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from what paragraph in research, traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem.

It is as much a sign of intelligence to global case study, state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Think about qualifying research paper why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is global marketing study, often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide.

Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the basis of the essay. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the essay contest, argument your own and original. Global Study. Your own voice should be heard. This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is of essays, a particular form and style in marketing case study, academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . What Is A Paragraph About In Research Papers. Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an global case questions, overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. Research. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity.

One final point needs to be made on the subject of the essays you write being about case questions your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to by guy topics, tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the marketing case questions, course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the the necklace by guy essay, tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the global marketing case questions, text and books elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument. It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in global case study, essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in a flat, unconvincing, and unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by what about in research, arguments and interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in marketing case questions, the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and collection reading, not least because you will be enthused by them.

Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on global marketing study questions paper, then rewritten, and finally given to your tutor. Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Write. Once the essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about marketing study your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Closing. Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, it is an case study questions, ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the marketing study questions, main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation.

Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the main body of the paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the writing by global marketing case questions, the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and the necklace demaupassant essay topics she is mine for life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for God, she moulds the child for her own ends. Marketing Study Questions. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and global cut . ' (129).

When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and global study this is demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. Contest Graders. She becomes increasingly independent of global marketing questions, Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for qualifying research the Classical. Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to marketing case, some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in books, a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for global study questions Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to qualifying research paper, her' (146).

This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to marketing questions, or quoted from the necklace by guy essay, them directly. The order is alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. When referring to books you should include the author's name, place of publication, the publisher, and marketing case study questions the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. Essay Contest For 7th Graders. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent.

Consult the handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is a model used by many British universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84.

Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at marketing study questions the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and paper Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and global study questions publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul.

The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Is A About In Research Papers. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. Marketing Study Questions. 73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of 12 hours, Miss Jean Brodie in study, David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and the necklace demaupassant topics Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44.

Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by each model is global case study questions, given in the same order, but they differ in essay for 7th graders, the way that the global marketing study, details are presented. Write Essay. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for global case questions further advice. These books are on books collection the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995)

1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.

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Science/The African Lion term paper 5745. The lion is known as king of the jungle because of its huge size and ferocious appearance, the most common type of lion is the African lion. Global Marketing Case. The African lion has the genus species Panthera (panther, leopard) leo (lion). Essay Contest Graders. Panthera leo has the common name lion and comes from the felidae family. Global Case. Panthera leo is in the mammali class and case study questions has the order carnivora(Bush Gardens, 1996).

Lions live in global marketing study questions sub-Saharan Africa in grasslands and semi-arid plains in prides which is a group of lions that live in the same area and share hunting duties(Bush Gardens,1996). Lions are the only truly social cat species, usually a pride consists of two males, seven females, and any amount of books of essays, cubs. The lionesses are usually sisters or cousins that have all been together since birth. The average mature male stands four feet at the shoulder, weighs in around 450 pounds and is around eight and a half feet long plus his tail. The female on the other hand is global marketing case study questions considerably smaller and weighs in at a average of three hundred pounds. Lions usually have a light or dark brown plain spotless coat, white coated lions are sometimes found in write southern Africa but they are not true albinos (African Savannah). The male lion reaches sexual maturity at the age of five years and the lioness- which is the female lion, reaches its sexual maturity at the age of four. Lionesses in marketing case study a pride usually enter breeding season together and later give birth at the same time which allows the lionesses to share nursing and books other maternal duties. The lioness is pregnant between 98 and 105 days until it gives birth to a average of questions, 3 cubs, unfortunately only one of those cubs will survive the first year of life due to the harsh conditions in books collection their habitats (Bush Gardens, 1996). At birth the cubs are blind and global study questions move very slow. The cubs weigh less than five pounds (Wild Animals) and are marked with spots which sometimes stay on their legs and belly until they are fully grown. (African Savannah).

When the cubs reach five months of age, they weigh an average of fifty pounds but they still act playful like a kitten. In most cases, when the cub reaches nine months of age, their spots disappear. When the cubs come to the age of a year and a half, the mother teaches them to hunt (Comptons 1993, 1994). The male lions have a brown mane which grows darker and the necklace topics fuller as the global marketing case study lion ages (African Savannah) and at the age of paper, three the mane slowly starts to marketing study, show up. The average lion in the wild that lives past the age of one lives between 15 and 18 years and reaches its prime or time it is the strongest at the age of eight (African Savannah). Lions eat a variety of different prey and usually hunt at essay for 7th graders, night(Comptons,1993, 1994-African Savannah).

They prefer to eat wildebeast more than anything else, unfortunately they can only do so when migration brings the herds through the prides range. When the wildebeast herds are not migrating they eat buffalo, zebra, antelope, giraffe, and warthogs (African Savannah). When prey can't be caught, lions will steal food from other animals-usually from the hyenas. If absolutely no food can be found, lions will have to go to a last resort of eating snakes, termites, peanuts, fruits, and even rotten wood (Wild Animals). Marketing Case Questions. Although only collection one out of four hunting events is marketing case study successful, dominant males always eat first, lionesses next, and the cubs are forced to marketing questions, fight for scraps and global questions leftovers (Bush Gardens, 1996). Due to the fact the lion is inactive up to books of essays collection, twenty-one hours a day and global questions does all their hunting at night, they have to be able to see at demaupassant topics, night (Bush Gardens, 1996). The size of lions eyes are bigger than humans and lions only need one sixth of the amount of light humans need to be able to see (Garman, 1997). Lions also have many other special characteristics that help them hunt and marketing survive, some are listed below.

The adult lion's roar can be herd up to five miles away, this can be a warning that there is intruders or it can help guide strayed members of the pride back to the pride. The lion can also run up to thirty miles per hour when it is global case study trying to catch its prey, but they can only go this fast for a limited time(Bush Gardens, 1996). The lion also is a digitgrade which means they walk on their toes and this makes it so when they walk it does not make any noise. The male lions mane is marketing study not just for looks either, it makes the the necklace by guy essay topics lion seem bigger than he actually is and it also protects his throat when he gets in fights (African Savannah). The color of the lion is marketing another thing that helps it survive in the wild. The lions fur is the same color as sun-dried grass, that makes it so they can slide across the global marketing case plains, sneak up on their prey and attack (Comptons, 1993, 1994). So if you put all these special characteristics together you can see why the lion is called king of the jungle. Although lions may be king of the jungle, they are considered to be a threatened species. In 1991, only 200,000 African lions were left. Lions very rarely attack humans but over one hundred and fifty people were attacked by lions in Gir National Park alone (African Savannah).

One reason why the lions attack is because they grow old and become to slow to be able to catch their prey. Another reason why lions might attack is because occasionally a lion cub some how gets a taste of human blood and study after that he might continue to kill humans (Comptons 1993, 1994). Research. The Lion is a very important animal for Africa. Marketing. As described in the Disney movie The Lion King the lion keeps the circle of life moving. The lion keeps the gazelle population down by eating them, the gazelle meat keeps the lion alive, when the lion dies he fertilizes the grass, the grass grows and gives the qualifying paper gazelle food, and marketing case questions the circle just keeps going and going and going, but the gazelle isn't the only animal involved in the circle, it can be almost any animal. So as you realize it is very important that the lion stays alive, if there is only 200,000 lions left today, that means you could have no lions left at all ten years from now. What Is A Closing Paragraph. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.

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essay women's rights From Past to Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the fundamental importance of women achieving the global, vote, attention paid to the history of its long struggle has been marginalized. And, the reasons for the depth of its opposition ignored. Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and essay the United States. Global Case Study Questions. Yet dynamic struggles for women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Though these movements differed in their reasons and closing about tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the following topics, this essay attempts to help rectify the narrow and marketing case unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the the necklace by guy demaupassant, 19th/early 20th century struggle for women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of marketing case study, various nations gave each the the necklace demaupassant topics, resources they needed to global marketing questions overcome their marginalisation in the politics of their own nations. In the later decades of the what closing paragraph about papers, 19th century, the marketing study questions, expansion of the the necklace by guy topics, telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and global marketing study questions roles to be communicated from country to country. Improvements in transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to attend international gathering where they met and marketing study questions organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as: The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in global case questions Berlin in 1904. A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of by guy demaupassant, improving women#146;s rights, and each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world.

At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in global questions Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at of essays, woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to global study questions dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the the necklace, women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in global case the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. Research Paper. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the global marketing questions, World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in case questions non-western and global marketing case study southern countries.

When Willard saw the link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. Socialists were bent on marketing, organizing working class women. Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to global case study questions organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to gender relations.

German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the vote. Global Marketing Case Study. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the global case, 1890s. Global Marketing Case Study. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the Women#146;s Social and study questions Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to the suffrage cause. Groups in other nations imitated the British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in books Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and global case stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the sexes and research paper women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of these international bodies significantly forwarded the study questions, goal of universal female suffrage. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952.

Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at study questions, first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization.

Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. Study. As an example, women in India by the end of the nineteenth century were forming their own organizations. The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in global case 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for suffrage was long and sometimes bitter. Marketing Case. In most cases women won the case questions, right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and global marketing case can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to research vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in questions this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of what is a about papers, social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the global case, edge they needed.

The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Signed by the necklace by guy demaupassant topics, close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. Marketing. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at what about, this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe. The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in a Parade. In Europe, Finland, Norway and Iceland were among the first to grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only global marketing case study questions, extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for research paper many decades.

Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and vigorous in marketing case study the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in 1920. It was an equally long process in Britain where women#146;s important work in WWI provided an opportunity for the government to act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to write essay the tactics of the more militant arm of England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. Global Case. France was one of the last in Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the most radical critique of books of essays, women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of marketing study, whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. French women won the vote as late as 1944. French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss.

It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to is a paragraph about papers 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and global political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of women to essay 12 hours England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the marketing, proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on of essays, a par with men.

Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution. Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and women. Global Marketing. In other countries, like South Africa where only contest for 7th graders, whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the right to marketing vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to women, or extend only global study questions, limited suffrage. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of marketing case questions, education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in qualifying 2005 granted women the global questions, right to essay contest for 7th vote in the 2007 elections.

Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to marketing men. Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an graders, attempt to ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for women to marketing questions push for the vote. In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of soldiers serving overseas in 12 hours order to global case questions secure an election victory.

A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the vote because the franchise had already been entrusted to naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the United States the same argument was used, as was the collection, fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. Global Marketing. The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the the necklace by guy topics, incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements. The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for women, even with the passage of substantive reforms.

Concepts of the inherent equality between men and women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and global study questions special contributions to make. Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for prohibition as a way to safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in a position to press for global marketing case equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on their ability to have a say in case study questions laws regarding their right to work and closing about improvement in their working conditions. In the global marketing case study, colonized states, the colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of women in books their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to global marketing study questions push for women#146;s reforms abroad. On the other hand, nationalistic movements in colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at what is a closing in research papers, modernization with an improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the active support of global marketing study, women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state.

Kimura Komako in New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to qualifying achieve has been answered in different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Study. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges. Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on the necklace by guy essay, the other hand, challenged the existing order by threatening the marketing case, basis of women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act.

Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Citing claims that Islam and Kuwaiti custom bar women from write, holding office, the questions, head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the is a closing paragraph in research, head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it. This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is true that at times even well educated women in global marketing study questions countries with high percentages of female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of a Lose of Female rights. Some women and men worried that if the books of essays, concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in areas which they were not prepared to. Global Case Study. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed.

Most women did not want to give up what they saw as essential characteristics of their female nature if voting meant that they would have to case study enter the global case questions, rough and disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values. Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and books of essays collection shameless. Global Case Study. Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. In the years leading up to World War II, members of the Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on women to wait their turn.

Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to books collection take their proper place by the side of men, the global study, timing was wrong for a #147;votes for women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for research paper women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism. #149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by global case study questions, women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. The Necklace Demaupassant Essay. Women in Mexico sadly missed the chance to gain suffrage in 1930s because of these fears. Global Case Study. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, was ratified by the states, and only needed formal declaration to be made into law.

That declaration never came. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment. Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in 1889 with the passing of laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the right to join political parties. In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of what closing paragraph about in research, Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed. It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the right to vote.

But from the start, the state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to global case questions vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in 1963 and passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power in 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the qualifying research, government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and disbanded. The future looks brighter today. A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of marketing study questions, Iran, and noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women.

Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. What About Papers. Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the old resistance and global questions hostile attitudes against it. This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in over 41 countries of parity quotas and quota laws to achieve political gender balance. Responding to strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in many new constitutions, like the one of Rwanda, and recently in the constitution of Iraq. This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women.

The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for books of essays collection the local office have to be women. India in 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to marketing questions enter institutions as members and office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in write essay 12 hours the landscape of local politics. In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in the Lower House of Parliament.

Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. Global Marketing Case Questions. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of essay for 7th graders, Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984.

Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000. #147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by marketing case questions, Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on essay 12 hours, this website.