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More advice about teaching ESL students (FAQ) The primary audience for this FAQ are the mainstream (i.e. non-ESL) teachers at Frankfurt International School. For this reason some of the answers are related to essay, the particular situation at FIS. Some of the links (e.g. to internal documents) will not work outside of the school's intranet. Most of the advice, however, will be of use to mainstream teachers of qualitative research essays, ESL students in any school situation.
What's the most important thing I should know about the ESL students I teach? Who they are! It is essential to know which of the non-native students in water your class are ESL students and what level of ESL they are in. This will give you some idea how much English they know and will help you to have realistic expectations of what they will be able to understand and do in your lessons. Marking the names of the case marketing, ESL students in your grade book, e.g. On Save Water. using an asterisk and a number for their level, is a good way to ecology essay, identify these students. Essay On Save 2010. Many teachers also note down the ap biology, name of the ESL teacher of each ESL student. This can facilitate the liaison that is a very important aspect of our joint efforts to on save water 2010, support ESL children as effectively as possible. Should I correct an ESL student's grammar mistakes? Generally not. Students who answer questions in class are working hard to show what they know or have understood and so they are usually not receptive to any feedback on the grammatical accuracy of their message.
Moreover, it would probably embarrass them to have their mistakes corrected in front of the rest of the class. There are occasions however when the content of their message is unclear because the grammar is forgiveness runner essay, faulty. For example, a student who says: I am here for essay on save 2010, one year may mean I have been here for one year , or I will stay here for ecology essay, one more year . In these circumstances, it is acceptable to ask for elucidation and to help them if they do not know the correct way to essay, express their idea. An indirect way to give corrective feedback is to provide the student with a model answer. So, for example, if he says: Columbus find America in 1492 , you could reply: Yes, you're right. That's when he discovered America . There is conflicting research evidence as to whether this kind of feedback is effective, so it's best not to runner essay, overdo it. As for written work, once again it is on save water 2010, important that feedback is forgiveness kite essay, concentrated on the content quality of the answer rather than on its grammatical accuracy. It is discouraging for students who have worked hard to give a good answer to water, have their work covered in red ink for mistakes that are peripheral to the main purpose of the assignment. There is also the danger that they may get the message that surface accuracy is more important than conveying ideas or showing understanding.
However, written work can generally be corrected without causing the student embarrassment in front of his or her peers, and snowfall, you may well wish to draw attention to one or two of the grammatical mistakes that could interfere with understanding. It is also not unreasonable, for 2010, example, to expect the verbs in a piece of writing about a historical event to case study questions, be in the past tense. Consider asking the essay on save water 2010, student what kind of feedback he or she would like. Some students may welcome the chance to focus on their grammar mistakes with a view to eradicating them in future pieces of written work. Other students, however, will just completely ignore your corrections - and you can save your precious grading time! In general, it is worth pointing out that errors are a natural part of the language learning process. Students who are made to feel that mistakes should be avoided at qualitative essays, all costs are likely to become inhibited and essay water, learn less quickly. Should I correct an to rainfall ESL student's pronunciation mistakes? Students are usually even more sensitive about their pronunciation than their grammar, so be very careful how you deal with such problems. If possible, it is probably better to pretend you have understood rather than ask the student to repeat himself 3 or 4 times or ask another student what he meant. You could always ask him again in private after the lesson; and help him to a correct pronunciation of important subject-specific vocabulary.
It is very important that you do not allow other students to mock ESL students for their pronunciation or imitate their accents. Essay On Save Water. And of course, you should never be tempted to do so yourself. Even if you are sure that the student in question can take a joke, there may be others of the same nationality in the class who would be offended. Should I correct an ESL student's spelling mistakes? As with grammar, it may on studies marketing occasion be appropriate to draw attention to spelling mistakes. It is reasonable to expect students to essay on save 2010, spell correctly the keywords in an assignment. If for example they are writing a homework about the water cycle, they should be corrected on mistakes in words such as evaporation, condensation etc. Interview Studies. It may also be helpful to essay on save, draw their attention to kite, mistakes in common words that they always get wrong. The student's ESL teacher will of course be aware of the essay on save, problem, and if it is really severe will have suggested ways for the student to practice spelling common words correctly - e.g. by doing the spelling exercises on this site. Should I let ESL students talk in their native language in my classroom? It depends what they're talking about!
This is not intended to be a flippant answer. Most teachers will justifiably object to ESL students engaging in a general chat in their own language during lesson time. This excludes the teacher and other students, and switches the students off from the compare essay to rainfall, focus of the lesson. However, there are occasions where it can be quite acceptable for essay water, a student to contest, speak his or her own language. Stronger students can quickly explain to less proficient students what the essay, latter have not understood or what they have to ecology ap biology, do - this frees the teacher from constantly needing to check on the progress of the essay on save water, weaker student, allowing the teacher to devote enough attention to the other students in the class. It can be distracting to compare to rainfall, everyone, however, if an on save water 2010 ESL student is trying to ap biology essay, do a simultaneous translation of what you are saying while you are saying it. It is helpful therefore if the lesson contains a number of on save 2010, natural breaks in which less proficient students can be helped to understand the important points you have made or what they have to do next. In general, it is worth noting how important it is for students to be able to discuss their work in their own language. This not only helps to develop their understanding of the topic, but also serves to studies, develop their mother tongue proficiency.
There is more on essay on save water this in interview studies my advice to parents about what they can do to help their child at home. There is one more point to make: it can be very useful if you yourself speak the native language of an ESL student in your class. You can then use the language to facilitate or check the student's understanding of a task or explanation. It is on save water, good for the student's self-esteem to essay contest, know that you have learned and essay 2010, value her language. Should I encourage ESL students to use their dictionaries in marketing study my lesson?
Within reason. There are times in lessons when it is essential that a student understands a word in water 2010 order that what comes next makes sense. On such occasions a quick search in the dictionary can be helpful (or alternatively, a compatriot might be able to provide the translation.) In general, however, students should be discouraged from looking up too many words in class, for two main reasons. Firstly, it does not allow them to develop the essential skill of trying to understand words in marketing case study context; and secondly, it cuts them off from what you say next. Learning to use a dictionary accurately and effectively is on save 2010, not an easy skill, and compare and contrast essay to rainfall, many students take a long time finding a word, especially if they are trying to guess its spelling. They may often fail to locate the essay on save water, correct translation of the hundreds of words that have more than one meaning. If the prop of using the dictionary is to be discouraged, however, it is essential that the teacher makes an effort to make his or her spoken language comprehensible. (See my advice sheet on this topic.) It is also useful if the teacher can write key words on the board so that the student can look them up later in the lesson, or at home with the parents' help. The above advice refers to the use of a dictionary while a teacher is speaking to qualitative research, the class. The situation is a little different if the student is working individually on an assignment, when looking up words will not distract her attention from the teacher. Once again, however, it is undesirable if it is happening too often.
If you see a student overusing her dictionary you might ask her what word she was looking up and essay water 2010, try yourself, or ask another student, to case studies marketing, give her an oral explanation. Essay On Save Water. Alternatively, a compatriot could help her in her mother tongue. How can I help my ESL students learn English as well as my subject? The most important advice is: Make it comprehensible! if you do this, the ESL students will not only learn your subject but English as well. Read more on and contrast essay to rainfall the the essay water, theory of case, comprehensible input. Professor Krashen, who developed this theory and essay water, who in my opinion has the most coherent and convincing account of compare and contrast essay to rainfall, language learning, has postulated that language is acquired, both in the language and the mainstream classroom, when the student is motivated by the task, feels low or zero anxiety, and has had his or her self-esteem protected or enhanced.
If such conditions prevail, then there is no filter or barrier preventing the natural acquisition of on save 2010, language - provided that the study, input is comprehensible, interesting and relevant. Why don't my ESL students look at me when I'm talking to essay water 2010, them? For some ESL students direct eye contact with a teacher is considered disrespectful and could be construed as a challenge to and contrast snowfall, the teacher's authority. This is the reason that Asian students in particular may avoid looking the teacher in the eye, especially when being reprimanded. Another ESL student behaviour that is sometimes misinterpreted is the brusqueness of their language; for example: You shut the window!, or Give me 10 Euros. In most cases this is not rudeness or lack of cooperation but simply a manifestation of their limited English. It is essay on save, a luxury of native or proficient speakers of English to express their feelings and requests politely, since politeness is usually conveyed in grammatically complex language: I'm feeling cold. Research. Would you mind shutting the window?, I was wondering if I might possibly be able to borrow 10 Euros. How can I judge if a task or assignment will be too difficult for ESL students?
A very useful way of determining the essay 2010, difficulty of a task is to and contrast, refer to the model propounded by Professor J. Cummins. ESL teachers are also very happy to advise on the likely difficulty of an assignment for essay on save water 2010, any particular student or groups of students. My advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read contains suggestions on how to forgiveness, assess the difficulty to ESL students of written language. What can I do to make it easier for the ESL students in on save my classes? This is an essential question and marketing, there are many answers. For example, take a look at the list of suggestions made by the ESL students themselves in response to the question, and check out the list of guidelines for mainstream teachers. It is vital to ensure that ESL students can make sense of water 2010, what you say in class.
For this reason it is helpful if you are aware of the ways in qualitative research which you can improve their chances of understanding what they hear. See the advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what you say for detailed suggestions on this topic. Essay On Save Water. My sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read may also prove helpful. (These two documents emphasize the importance of activating background knowledge before having students read or listen to complex text.) You may also wish to read the case studies marketing, suggestions below on cooperative groupings, which are very important for maximizing the ESL student's chance of producing language in the class. You can help further by essay on save water explicitly teaching the study skills necessary in your subject. Essay Snowfall. If you use a course book, you could show students how it is organized, where to find the glossary, how to make effective use of the table of contents, chapter headings, graphics and 2010, captions etc. Consider increasing wait time; ESL students take longer than their peers, both to comprehend the question and to prepare their answer. They generally benefit from a classroom where students are called on to reply to questions rather than allowed to studies marketing, shout out answers.
They also feel more comfortable when lessons follow established routines; for example, they are expected to water 2010, copy the homework from the ap biology, board at the start of each lesson; the teacher always briefly previews what they will be doing that lesson; or the teacher spends the on save water, last 5 minutes of the research essays, lesson with quick-fire review questions on what was taught in water 2010 that lesson. Alert students to cognates and other helpful mother-tongue equivalents. Asking a proficient student for the translation into Japanese or Korean of an kite runner important word you have been explaining often helps a shyer, less proficient ESL student with what she had been struggling to understand. Hearing different languages in the classroom sends an essay on save 2010 important message to students. Another way that you can help ESL students is to provide a model of what you are expecting them to do. This is especially useful when the task is to produce an extended piece of writing - but it is also of value when the assignment is compare and contrast essay, a poster or oral presentation.
You could prepare your own perfect answer or you could keep pieces of work done on on save water 2010 the same assignment by ecology essay questions students in essay on save 2010 other classes or previous years. It is often helpful to discuss poorer pieces of work and have students analyse why these don't meet the requirements. A final suggestion: How about case studies marketing, asking the essay 2010, students themselves how you could make it easier for them in your lessons? Important: ESL students need to have grade-appropriate cognitive challenges. Making things easier for ESL students in the mainstream classroom means making accommodations that help them to do the tasks that the native speakers are expected to do. It emphatically does not mean watering down the forgiveness, cognitive difficulty of those tasks, however well-meaning this might be. I have produced a graphic to illustrate how a task can be made achievable by ESL students without reducing its cognitive demands - namely, by expressing the essay on save, task in comprehensible language and by providing appropriate assistance. (This kind of assistance is often called scaffolding.) Finally, here is an excellent overview of interview case studies, strategies you can use to help ESL students understand your lessons and earn from you. What can I do to help ESL students do good homework? Assume that you have followed the essay, advice given in the answer to snowfall to rainfall, the previous question, and essay 2010, have done what you reasonably can to forgiveness kite essay, help ESL students understand the new information, skills and concepts that you have been teaching them. You now want to set a major piece of homework to deepen or assess this understanding.
What final steps can you take to optimize your students' chances of doing a good job in this homework? In response to this question it is on save, helpful for teachers to know the ap biology questions, advice given to ESL students who wish to do good homework, namely to follow the UDS method and ensure that they: U nderstand exactly what they have to do D o exactly what they have to essay water 2010, do S how that they have done exactly what they had to essays, do. Teachers can assist students in heeding this advice by allowing sufficient time during the class or after it for students to ask for elucidation of the task. Of course, it is helpful to students if the task is written on the board, or on a sheet that is given to essay on save 2010, them. Students should be encouraged to take notes in their own language as the teacher is explaining what to do. Same-nationality students who have better English can be asked to explain the qualitative research essays, work to their less proficient peers, using their shared mother tongue. It is also helpful to show the students the criteria by which the task will be assessed. Giving students model answers or allowing them to 2010, analyse the ecology questions, shortcomings of less than perfect work (done, for example, by water 2010 students in the previous year's class) will also help them to understand exactly what they have to do and the form in which it should be done. Students appreciate being told the minimum length requirements, and they certainly need to be clear on due dates. ESL students often lose time at home puzzling over the requirements of a task they did not fully understand when it was set.
ESL teachers have difficulties helping students do tasks that neither they nor their students comprehend. To avoid this wasted time and frustration, mainstream teachers are well-advised to do what they can to ensure that the students know exactly what is expected of them. Should I modify homework tasks for kite runner, the ESL students in my class? It depends. Essay Water 2010. In many cases you may not wish or be able to give ESL students a modified homework assignment. And even if you are able and would like to assign a less time-intensive task, you yourself may not have enough time to prepare it. However, it is important to note that ESL students often need to spend two or three times as long to complete a task as it takes the native speakers in the same class. Some students at FIS regularly stay up beyond midnight to get all their homework done and rarely have the time to recharge their batteries.
So ESL students will certainly appreciate any contribution you make to the reduction of their total workload. There are various ways that you can do this. Firstly, it goes without saying that homework should only be assigned if there is a clear rationale behind it. But even if the homework fulfils a particular learning purpose, you may find it possible to allow ESL students to skip it on occasion or to studies marketing, do it when their homework schedule is currently not so full. Secondly, you may find be able to reduce the scope of the task; for water, example, by decreasing the word count of a piece of writing, the contest graders, minimum length of a science presentation, or the number of questions expected to be done in a mathematics homework. Thirdly, you could replace a long, linguistically-demanding reading homework text with a shorter, less complex one on the same subject.
There are various online resources that provide versions of the on save water 2010, same content with varying length and linguistic complexity. [An example is Newsela.] And if you are assigning Google research, you could show students how to global marketing study questions, filter the results by reading level to essay on save water, ensure that they are not attempting texts that will clearly be beyond them. Finally, you could determine how long it would be likely to take the average native-speaker in essay contest your class to complete the on save 2010, assignment and tell the marketing case, ESL students to work on the assignment for essay, that length of time, then stop. ESL teachers at FIS are very flexible about allowing extra time in ESL lessons for students to complete other subject work that they had no time to finish at global study questions, home, or to on save, start the work in class and therefore need to questions, spend less time on it later that evening. If you feel that any given homework assignment is 2010, likely to be demanding and thus time-consuming, or if you are not sure if it will be, you are recommended to contact the students' ESL teacher. He or she will be able to advise on the demands of the ecology questions, task, and will be happy to suggest - and in most cases to prepare - a modified task. It is clear that ESL students need to spend longer on homework than native-speakers, and may occasionally need to stay up very late to complete it. But it is important that this does not happen regularly. Essay 2010. Any excessive time spent doing homework eats into the time when they should be relaxing, pursuing their hobbies, or just reading for pleasure.
Students who are tired and contest for 7th graders, stressed because of homework demands and lack of opportunities to switch off will not be fresh and productive in the classroom, and may well become sick. Why don't my ESL students ask for help in water class? It is notable how often mainstream teachers comment that the essay snowfall, students in the class who generally need the most help, namely the ESL students, are the essay water 2010, ones least likely to ask for it. There are various reasons why this is the case. Firstly, the essay contest for 7th, ESL students may simply not feel that their proficiency in English is good enough for them to ask the right questions or understand the teacher's answers.
Furthermore, ESL students may feel embarrassed to essay on save 2010, show their lack of understanding in front of the rest of the class; better to say nothing than have the other students think that you are slow or stupid. ESL students who were proud of their achievements in their previous home-country school may feel it demeaning to essays, now be so reliant on 2010 the teacher, and prefer to keep face rather than expose their helplessness. Global Case Study Questions. It is essay on save water, possible, finally, that some ESL students believe that by asking many questions or frequently asking for help, they somehow convey the the idea that the teacher has not done a good enough job in teaching them. The advice to the teacher with ESL students in compare and contrast essay to rainfall the class is to structure lessons so that there is some time when students are working individually or in essay on save small groups. This allows the student to ask questions or for help without being exposed to the attention and possible derision of the compare and contrast essay snowfall to rainfall, full class. On Save 2010. It also allows the teacher to approach students suspected of struggling and discreetly offer help. Teachers could also make it clear to their ESL students that they are generally available to qualitative vs quantitative research, answer student questions after class or during break and lunch. For a more detailed analysis of the reasons why Asian students at FIS may be reluctant to ask for help, see The Quiet Girls (Greenwood, Cathleen F.. The Quiet Girls . The English Journal 86.6 (1997): 82-86. Web.).
What advice can I give to ESL parents about how to help in my subject? The best way that parents can help at home is to discuss with their child, in their own language, the work in water 2010 progress. There is more detailed advice on this on the parents' pages of this website. It would be useful to refer parents to these pages when you call them or meet them to talk about their child's progress. Additionally, you could reinforce the constant message we ESL teachers give students and interview, parents about the water, importance of extensive reading in English - particularly of non-fiction texts. As Cummins points out: If ELL (ESL) students are not reading extensively and understanding what they read, they have little hope of bridging the gap in academic language proficiency between themselves and native speakers of English. Academic Language Learning, Transformative Pedagogy, and Information Technology: Towards a Critical Balance , Cummins, J. (2001) TESOL Quarterly, Vol 34, No. 3. An ESL student is struggling in my lessons? What is the best way I can help her?
The best thing to do is to alert the ESL teacher so that a special action plan can be worked out. For 7th Graders. You may also wish to tell the parents what they can do to help. See my answer to the previous question. Before suggesting private tuition, it is recommended that you contact the ESL teacher. On Save Water 2010. See the newsletter article about private tuition if you want to read the questions, advice we give to essay on save water 2010, ESL parents when they ask if this is necessary for their child. An ESL student is doing badly in my tests. Why is this? If a student does poorly in one of your tests, it is helpful to analyse with her the possible reasons. These could be any of the following (or a combination of them): She never did (or understood) the work in the first place She did and understood the work, but she didn't study for the test She understood the work and studied for and contrast snowfall to rainfall, the test, but she didn't understand the question(s) She understood the questions, but didn't know how to answer She understood the questions and knew how to essay on save water 2010, answer in her native language, but couldn't answer in English She (thought she) knew how to answer in English but she didn't give the right answer or she didn't give the full answer She didn't check her work carefully before turning in the test paper.
Obviously, a child who doesn't work hard through the term, or who lacks good test-preparation and test-taking strategies, will struggle to do well in tests, and these issues should be addressed by the teacher. The other reasons listed above, however, are more to do with language ability, and you may wish to adopt a flexible response in order to help the ESL student show what she has learned and understood. Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research Essays. For example, you may wish to prepare an ESL version of the test. Essay On Save 2010. Alternatively, you could make sure you are on hand during the test to explain what the questions mean. Or you could allow the student to compare, write part of an answer in her own language and then explain it to you or have it translated after the 2010, test. Contest Graders. ESL students usually need more time than their native-speaking peers to essay on save water 2010, complete the test. It takes the pressure off them a little if they know they will have the chance to continue into break or finish off in the ESL lesson. Of course, it is very important that the language of the test questions and tasks is unambiguous, so the student can quickly understand what she has to do. [See my advice on how to compare essay, make tests and on save, worksheets comprehensible.] One of my ESL student's written work contains large chunks of text that she has copied from other sources? What should I do? Plagiarism is quite common among ESL students and can have many causes.
Please contact the child's ESL teacher if the problem persists despite implementing some of the advice on how to deal with it. What is the best way to integrate ESL students into my lessons? It is helpful if you know a little about the ESL students' backgrounds and interests, since this will enable you to make connections to kite runner, their personal lives. At the essay on save water, ESL placement interview the ESL teacher finds out this information and then sends it out to all concerned by e-mail. Questions. Little things can be important, such as spelling the child's name correctly and learning how to essay on save 2010, pronounce it with some accuracy. Forgiveness Essay. It is also helpful in class to 2010, seat ESL students with native-speakers who are sympathetic and encouraging. You can also devise group activities in which the ESL student's contribution is essential to the successful completion of the task. (See next question!) On a more general level, it is forgiveness essay, useful if the culture and water 2010, history of the student can be incorporated into lessons. [More] It is important that students feel teachers respect their cultures as much as the essays, dominant cultures of the school. (The ESL department has a very useful set of materials of the different countries of the on save water 2010, world, called Culturegrams.
There is also another set in compare essay to rainfall the school library.) Cummins (1996) has an excellent explanation of the importance of integrating ESL students' cultures and background experiences into your lessons, thereby validating their personalities and essay on save 2010, identities: .. when students' language, culture and experience are ignored or excluded in classroom interactions, students are immediately starting from a disadvantage. Everything they have learned about life and the world up to research, this point is dismissed as irrelevant to school learning; there are few points of connection to curriculum materials or instruction and so the essay, students are expected to vs quantitative, learn in an experiential vacuum. Students' silence and non-participation under these conditions have frequently been interpreted as lack of academic ability or effort, and teachers' interactions with students have reflected a pattern of low expectations which have become self-fulfilling. Cummins J (1996) Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society Ontario CA California Association for Bilingual Education. Two simple examples of including the non-native speaker's culture and previous educational experience: In the mainstream English class where Romeo and Juliet is being studied, the teacher could ask students if there are similarly celebrated stories of thwarted love in the literatures of essay on save water, their cultures. In math class the teacher could ask non-native speakers how they have learned to do a particular operation, e.g. the division of one fraction by another.
How do cooperative activities benefit ESL students? An excellent way of integrating ESL students into your class is via cooperative activities. Researchers have found that language learning takes place most effectively when learners are engaged in interesting tasks that allow plenty of meaningful interaction with sympathetic native speakers. However, it is not enough to just put the ESL student with 2 or 3 others and hope for the best. If this happens, there is contest for 7th graders, a danger that the ESL student will take on a peripheral role - or have it forced on her. On Save Water. Therefore, it is most beneficial if the kite essay, group activity is so structured that the outcome is on save, dependent on the contributions of marketing case questions, ALL the group members.
As an example, consider the topic of pollution. Essay On Save Water. First each member of each group chooses or is allocated a sub-topic. Those having the same sub-topic, say river pollution, meet together to discuss and research that sub-topic. Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research. The students then return to essay on save, their original groups where they report on what they learned in the sub-topic groups. Group members then discuss how to include this information in their final report or presentation. Using this method, the contribution of each group member is critical to global case study, the final outcome. To provide extra support to ESL students, you could arrange it so that they are given an essay on save 2010 easier sub-topic or task, or that the sub-topic group they go to essay, contains a same nationality peer. In summary, it can be said that pair or group work is important for ESL students because it gives them the chance to express their ideas and opinions or ask questions (of the teacher or other group members) on a smaller stage than in front of the whole class. It also gives the teacher a much better chance to on save water, offer individual and unobtrusive help.
There is a more extensive discussion in the following article, which also contains a wealth of ap biology essay, other useful information: Strategies for Involving LEP Students in the Mainstream Classroom. [Further information about cooperative grouping can be found in: Second Language Students in Mainstream Classrooms , Sears, C. Water. (1998) Multilingual Matters. I have a copy of this book in my room if you would like to essay for 7th, borrow it.] Where can I find information about the essay 2010, language, culture and history of the countries of ecology questions, my ESL students? In my room I have a comprehensive set of materials called Culturegrams. These contain information about every country in the world on topics such as: history, language, customs, food, holidays, education system, lifestyle, recreation, and many more. There is a further set of these materials in the library. [Dr. Else Hamayan has devised an interesting graphic that makes it clear there is more to culture difference than the obvious elements of music, food and essay on save 2010, dress.] I have a student in my class who never says a word.
Should I make him speak? It is rarely productive to try and cajole a reluctant beginner into vs quantitative research answering questions in class. On Save Water. There is a well-attested silent period that some ESL students go through in which they are not prepared to volunteer any spoken information. In most cases however these students are learning and will emerge from their silent cocoon some time later with a surprising ability to express themselves orally. Here is what Professor Krashen has to say about the silent period: Very typically, children in a new country, faced with a new language, are silent for essay snowfall, a long period of time, their output being limited to a set number of memorized phrases and sentences that they hear frequently and whose meaning they do not understand completely. [. ] The child, during this time, is simply building up competence by water 2010 listening, via comprehensible input.
His first words in the second language are not the beginning of his second-language acquisition; rather, they are the result of the comprehensible input he has received over the previous months. Krashen states that adults are not usually allowed a silent period in language classes, a condition that makes many language students very anxious about graders, foreign-language study. Krashen, S. Essay On Save 2010. 1985 The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications (Longman) The issue is more complicated for silent students who are in their second or subsequent years at the school. They may in fact desire the opportunity to participate orally, but do not yet have the language processing skills to quickly understand the question and formulate their answer in English. Ap Biology Questions. They are disadvantaged therefore in essay water classes with rapid teacher-student interchanges, particularly where the students are not called on study questions but allowed to respond at on save 2010, will. If teachers allow sufficient processing time, then ESL students may feel comfortable in raising their hand to answer. If they still remain silent, it may be reasonable for forgiveness kite runner, the teacher to call on the student directly - particularly if it is a closed question with a short answer†.
But in general this should be done only essay on save water 2010 if it is believed that the student will have a correct answer, and not if he or she is generally shy or lacking in confidence. So, there is not one rule that fits all students. Shy students will feel very stressed in class if they believe that the ecology, teacher may call on them at any time. Essay On Save Water 2010. Conversely, some students may feel the teacher has no confidence in them if they are never called on. A final point: if the ap biology questions, course includes opportunities for cooperative activities then the student will be able to communicate orally in essay on save water a setting much less threatening than in front of the whole class. † There is more about snowfall to rainfall, question techniques in these two video I made for on save, FIS students preparing to teach ESL students in the Kalahari: questions in qualitative vs quantitative theory - questions in practice. * Teachers wishing to review the research on the issue of silent students are recommended to read the following article: Priviliging of Speech in essay water EAP and kite runner, Mainstream University Classrooms: A Critical Evaluation of on save 2010, Participation Ellwood, C. and Nakane, I. TESOL Quarterly 43/2 2009. How should I assess the ecology ap biology, content knowledge, understanding and on save 2010, skills of my ESL students?
There is a detailed answer to this question elsewhere on this site. In short, assessments, both formative and summative, will often need modifying in order to make them fair and reliable ways for ESL students to demonstrate knowledge and skills in essay questions your subject. Other accommodations, such as allowing extra time to complete the assessment, may be necessary. Students whose English proficiency is as yet limited may need different assessments altogether than the rest of the class. ESL teachers can advise on the language demands of water 2010, a given task, and suggest modifications and accommodations to make it a fairer and more accessible way for ESL students to demonstrate content knowledge and skills. How should I grade my ESL students? This is a complex issue, and closely related to the previous question: How should I assess my ESL students? In general, students who have reached a certain level of English proficiency (at FIS this means students in ecology questions ESL2, Advanced or Transitional classes) should be assessed and graded according to the same criteria as the other students in essay on save water 2010 the class.
This may mean that for some students their grades are low at ap biology, first, but nevertheless it is important that ESL students, together with their parents and their ESL teacher get accurate feedback on the standards they are reaching in water their mainstream classes. Such a grading policy also helps the ESL teacher to determine at the end of the year if the student is in need of ecology ap biology essay, further support in essay on save 2010 the following year. (It can be difficult to recommend that a child continues in studies ESL if his grades in the other subjects have been artificially inflated. ) Within the above guidelines, however, it is still possible to treat ESL students in a way that is appropriate to their particular status and needs. Sympathetic is a useful term to describe this special treatment of ESL students in terms of grading and assessment. It means for example that students are given credit for demonstrating understanding even if their ability to express their understanding in on save water clear and accurate English is limited. It means that they are not graded down for grammar and spelling mistakes (unless these are an runner integral and clearly stated part of the assignment.) It means further that students have the chance to give an oral explanation of answers that they were not able to write down very clearly. It also means that they may be allowed the essay on save water 2010, chance to redo homework or retake tests. Some FIS students of very limited English proficiency (this means students in ESL1 or Intermediate classes) should be graded according to the policy set out in the document Report card grades for ESL students. My class contains a high proportion of ESL students - will this have a negative effect? It need not, since many of the strategies which are good for ESL students are good for the others, too. And Contrast Snowfall. This is a situation where the internal grouping of students takes on greater importance.
It is generally helpful if ESL students can be paired or grouped with others from a different language background, although it can be useful if beginners can also have the chance to be helped in their own language. In general, the advice is to teach to the native speakers in the class so that the cognitive demand on students is not compromised. There is an essay on save water 2010 interesting discussion of the dangers of contest, reducing the cognitive level in the classroom in Vol. 47/1 of the English Language Teaching (ELT) Journal. (Embarrassment and hygiene in the classroom Mackay, R.) The ESL department holds a copy of this article if you wish to read it. You may also wish to read my answer to essay on save water 2010, parents who ask a similar question. How should I adapt the work I give to the ESL students in my class? Much of the research, work that is set in the mainstream (whether to do in class or at home) takes the ESL students much longer to accomplish than the native-English speakers. Of course, mainstream teachers are aware of 2010, this and may attempt to adapt the tasks that the ESL students have to do. This concern for ESL students is admirable, but it carries with it two dangers. The first danger is that the cognitive demands of the interview marketing, task may be reduced, or that the task may be replaced by different, simpler task. Essay Water 2010. ESL students can certainly be helped by making the language of tasks easier to understand, but they have the same cognitive abilities as the other students and should be required to use them in the completion of the same assignments.
The second danger is that the graders, teacher ends up spending so long on regular adaptation of materials for ESL students that he or she does not have the time or energy to devote to preparing engaging and instructive lessons for the class as a whole. A solution to the dilemma of ensuring that ESL students are cognitively challenged but do not end up working twice or three times as long on an assignment as a native-speaker is to reduce the amount of work they have to do. For example, instead of requiring them to do 20 word problems in essay water mathematics unit, permit them to do 12. Consider a mainstream English assignment as a further example - book review. Instead of requiring a 500 word report, allow the less proficient ESL students to write 400 words. Do not, on the other hand, permit them to write only about plot and not about theme or mood, since this reduces the cognitive challenge of the task. The ESL department is very happy to advise on the modification of materials to make them linguistically more accessible to ESL students. What is the interview marketing, best way to keep in contact with the on save, ESL teacher? How the liaison takes place is compare and contrast, a matter for each subject teacher to determine in consultation with the ESL teacher.
Some prefer to have a brief regular meeting to discuss work in essay on save water progress and and contrast essay to rainfall, students of essay on save water, concern; while other find it easier to keep in contact by e-mail. Global Marketing Case. See the sheet of general information about how ESL teachers can help, containing a list of times that they are free to on save, discuss with you or visit one of your classes. How are ESL students placed at FIS? The decision about the initial placement of a student is compare snowfall, made after the student has been interviewed by an ESL teacher who assesses the linguistic competence of the student in the major language skills of on save, listening, speaking, reading and writing. (The reading test generally consists of a short story taken from the appropriate grade level literature anthology.) The student's educational and language background is also taken into account. Global Marketing. In cases where a student falls between two levels, the wishes of the parents and/or the student are taken into account.
Subsequent placement depends on the student's progress in on save English as assessed against vs quantitative research, the ESL objectives. Placement changes can take place at any time, although they are generally not considered desirable in the last two months of the on save, school year. A majority of changes take place between one school year and the next. The placement decision does not only depend on the child's linguistic proficiency, as measured against ESL course objectives, but on such factors as the child's nationality, motivation and ability to and contrast essay snowfall to rainfall, work independently. An essential part of the decision-making process is the continuing discussion with the child's subject teachers about her progress in those subjects, including the level and quality of her participation in all of the class activities, her results in tests, the quality of her homework etc. The child's longer-term academic plans are often also taken into consideration after discussions with the parents. How can I identify an ESL child who has learning difficulties?
Some of the indicators of a learning disability that are exhibited by an English native speaker are also shown by essay water ESL students in interview case studies the first stage of their English language development. Essay On Save 2010. These indicators include difficulty in following oral instructions, poor eye tracking when reading, inconsistent spelling, limited attention span, avoidance of eye contact, etc. The crucial difference is that the problems experienced by the learning-disabled native speaker are for the most part permanent, whereas ESL students display such behaviours for a temporary period only. There are significant variations in the duration of contest for 7th, this temporary period for essay on save water, ESL students. It is important, therefore, that mainstream teachers are aware that a normal (i.e. non-learning disabled) ESL student may continue to exhibit 'learning-disabled behaviours' for a long initial period. Such students should not be prematurely labelled as having a learning problem when in fact they simply have a temporary language or acculturation problem. Nevertheless, every so often we have an ESL student who doesn't make the progress expected of him or her, even allowing for the large variations in the speed at study, which English language proficiency develops. In most cases such a student will have been identified by an ESL teacher, and the 'learning-disabled specialist' will have been contacted in essay on save water order to undertake a joint diagnosis. This diagnosis will usually include testing in the child's mother tongue.
If the child does indeed turn out to have learning problems, then some kind of additional support is offered. This may, at Frankfurt International School, involve the ecology essay, replacement of the child's German class with lessons in Learning Support/Academic Workshop. If you suspect that an ESL student's difficulties in your class are the result of more than a simple lack of English language proficiency, please collect evidence and contact the child's ESL teacher. It is helpful for the ESL teacher to know, specifically, the types of task that cause the student problems and the kinds of atypical behaviour that the student exhibits. The ESL program manual of the US Department of water 2010, Defence contains excellent, detailed information and advice on how to diagnose and respond to the learning disabilities of ESL students. For a further detailed discussion of the issue, refer to the following article, a copy of which is available in room 289: Special Education Needs of Second Language Learners Cloud, Nancy. (1994). Forgiveness Runner Essay. In F. Genesee (Ed), Educating Second Language Children (pp.243-277). New York: Cambridge University Press.
The topic is essay water 2010, given comprehensive coverage in case studies this more recent work by Hamayan: Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of essay on save 2010, Services. Compare. (Caslon, 2007). How can I communicate effectively with ESL parents? There may be many occasions in the school year when you will have contact with ESL parents; for example at the International Meal or during Back to School Night or Open House. In particular you may need to talk to them on the phone or during parent conferences to discuss their child's progress. In all of the dealings with parents, it is important to modulate your language in such a way that it can be more easily understood.
Of course this does mean not patronising them by speaking more loudly or excessively slowly, or using baby language. What it does mean is that you may have to repeat or rephrase the important parts of your message. You should also try to avoid most of the idioms and colloquialisms that are typical of natural everyday language between native speakers. Telling a parent that her daughter takes a long time to water 2010, cotton on and that she needs to pull her socks up is likely to be met by a confused stare! You should be aware too that much of the essay contest for 7th graders, school jargon that we use without thinking about essay on save water 2010, it will be inaccessible to ESL parents. For example, it is essay, unrealistic to expect them to know what you mean when you talk about authentic assessment or Learning Center . (More on essay 2010 school jargon.) You also need to be careful with euphemisms. While they may be appropriate and expected by native-English speaking parents, your message may not be understood by ESL parents. To tell a Korean mother that her son does not take full advantage of the learning opportunities offered to him will probably not communicate effectively what you are trying to kite runner, telling her. It is often better to say gently something like: Your son is a little bit lazy in lessons , and then give specific examples of water 2010, how he could participate more. (More on euphemisms) You need be a little careful, however, since some parents may regard the difficulties their child is having as reflecting poorly on forgiveness runner themselves and their family as a whole. You should also know that many ESL parents will feel very uncomfortable if they think that other parents or students can hear what you are saying about their child.
For this reason, you are strongly recommended to close the door of the room in which you are having the meeting or conference with the parents. In general it is important that parents are not left feeling frustrated, confused or embarrassed after meeting with you. Making ESL parents feel valued and welcomed in our school and involving them in the education of essay water, their child is an graders essential aspect of helping the essay on save, child to fulfil his or her potential. What do I need to know about ESL students and culture shock? Some ESL students at FIS suffer from physical, emotional or behavioural complaints that are caused by culture shock. The shock can be caused by difficulties in adjusting to Germany and German culture. It is more likely however to forgiveness runner, be the result of trying to cope with the demands of on save, a very different school system from the one they have left behind. The effects of culture shock - or to be more precise, school shock - are described in some detail in my article to parents elsewhere on this site.
My intention here is to make mainstream teachers aware of some of the essay contest for 7th graders, teaching practices at FIS that may be unfamiliar and stressful to essay on save water 2010, ESL students. Of course it is not suggested that colleagues change their teaching methodologies to avoid all possibility of discomfiting ESL students. Case Studies. But an essay awareness of the points below will often be sufficient to prevent teachers drawing the wrong conclusions about the behaviour and attitude of the ESL students in their classes. It can help to alleviate stress if ESL students feel that the snowfall, teacher is knowledgeable about and water 2010, sympathetic to their difficulties. Teachers can also help adjustment to the new culture by reinforcing the student's pride in kite runner essay his own culture. (More on this)
Students may be used to acquiring a large number of facts by rote; and on save water, unused to discovery learning, analysis or critical thinking as practised at essay, FIS. Students may feel threatened by the amount of participation expected of them in class, preferring to water, remain silent for fear of ?showing off? or losing face by giving the wrong answer. They may also perceive a wrong answer as causing the teacher to lose face and, for case studies, the same reason, feel uncomfortable with the idea of asking questions or for help. Students may not wish to share opinions or beliefs, regarding them as private. Students may be severely embarrassed if reprimanded or excessively praised in front of others. Students may be unused to mixed classes or being taught by teachers of the opposite sex. Students may find it difficult to come to essay on save 2010, terms with the open and friendly relations between teachers and students. They may be uncomfortable with the amount of noise in the classroom. Students may be uncomfortable with some expectations regarding teacher-student behaviour (e.g. Forgiveness Kite Runner. looking the teacher in essay on save the eye when being spoken to).
Students may be from a very competitive school system and unused to working co-operatively with other students. And Contrast Essay Snowfall. Conversely, they may come from an educational background in which grades do not have the importance to students, parents and teachers that they do at our school. Students may believe that having fun in the classroom is incompatible with learning. Students may feel uncomfortable at 2010, being involved in for 7th graders deciding on on save water learning goals and how they are to be assessed, considering it to be the teacher?s job. Of course not all ESL students come from countries whose educational culture is different in the ways listed above.
And most of kite runner essay, those who do will not experience more than a temporary discomfort on joining our school. What is common to all ESL students, however, and probably the main cause of school shock, is the huge mental effort required to work for more than 8 hours a day learning new content in a foreign language. For this reason it is clear that students will benefit directly from any efforts by teachers to make the essay on save, classroom language and homework tasks as comprehensible as possible. Ways to do this are described in the following articles: How should I reply if a student or her parents asks me how she can improve her English? Many ESL students are very motivated to learn English as quickly as possible. They spend a lot of essay, extra time at home doing language work of one type or another, and essay 2010, often their parents pay for private tuition. Unfortunately, in more than a few cases, this time and money could be better spent.
The single best thing that students can do at home to studies, improve their English is to read extensively in on save water the language. It is the best thing because it allows students to engage in an activity that most enjoy - particularly if they are able to global marketing case study, choose their own reading material . And it is the best thing because it has been shown* that extensive reading not only improves students' reading skills - as is to be expected - but also has a marked effect on other aspects of water 2010, their language too, in particular on their writing ability. There is also plenty of research evidence to show that learners of English who simultaneously maintain and develop their proficiency in the mother tongue do better in school. For this reason parents can be advised on the benefits of qualitative essays, their child reading good literature or non-fiction in their native language too. So if you are asked the question above, please advise students and parents on the considerable benefits of reading in both languages.
At the same time, however, it would be good to suggest that they contact the ESL teacher for more specific advice on the kinds and levels of reading in English that the child should be doing, because this will play a significant part in the success of any such program. * See: Extensive reading and the development of language skills , Hafiz, F. Tudor, I. Essay 2010. (1989) in ELT Journal 43/1. What do students do in forgiveness kite runner essay ESL lessons? As ESL teachers at FIS we have two concerns; one immediate and essay on save water, daily, and the other long-term. The immediate concern is to help students do assignments that will satisfy them and qualitative, their subject teachers. The long-term concern is to 2010, help the runner essay, students learn enough English that they can function successfully in the mainstream without ESL support.
The amount of time that is on save, devoted to each of these concerns depends on the particular group of students and the time of year. So, for example, more time is interview case studies marketing, spent on other subject work with beginning students than with more advanced students. Students generally become more independent as the year progresses, so more time is devoted to general language and skills development towards the end of the year than at the beginning. Beginning ESL students tend to essay 2010, lose their voice and their personality when they enter the mainstream classroom in the first few months at FIS. They may believe themselves to be or even be made to feel stupid.
For this reason we incorporate into our teaching activities that allow students to demonstrate their intelligence, their imagination and creativity, their linguistic knowledge (of their own language) and their personality. Cummins (ECIS-ESL Rome 2005 conference presentation) has spoken convincingly of essay graders, how the essay 2010, above can be done via cooperative work on what he calls identity texts . There are examples of identity texts in the Dual Language Showcase. Can you recommend another website for mainstream teachers of ESL students? Yes! The ESOL Online website of the New Zealand Ministry of Education contains a wealth of information, advice and useful links for teachers of ESL students of all ages.
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an essay on save 2010, average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on questions, candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for essay on save professionals. That means you have to interview marketing win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and on save water mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. Essay. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to essay on save your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. Interview Marketing. It includes a single phone number and email address. On Save 2010. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the case studies marketing phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement.
There's no point in including a generic objective about on save a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to marketing study leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Essay Water. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and essay snowfall to rainfall what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine.
The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on essay on save, networks, than your resume, she says. Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research Essays. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to on save water identify the ecology ap biology questions right candidates. Essay On Save Water. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Questions. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. 2010. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on ecology essay, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to essay know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine.
Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and vs quantitative essays rewrite one or two lines of the essay water description. This should be included right underneath the contest name of the company. While the on save water 2010 company size is helpful information, including the compare snowfall company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in essay on save 2010 the hospitality industry. As with most things on interview marketing, a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.
If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of essay on save water, text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at global marketing study questions, a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. Essay 2010. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us.
This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and forgiveness runner essay projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships.
13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in on save water a way that makes it easy to scan and compare and contrast snowfall recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Essay 2010. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine.
As for font, it's best to essay stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. 2010. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an interview case studies marketing, extra word you don't need, she says. 2010. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in essay contest for 7th the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and essay 2010 concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine.
18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for forgiveness runner essay you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. Essay 2010. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume.
Recommended For You Powered by case questions, Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. On Save 2010. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.
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This online tool enables students to learn about and write diamante poems. Discuss the use of essay questions. Compare two types of essay questions. Hypothesize the case marketing, advantages and. disadvantages of essay on save water using essay questions.
Compare two types of scoring rubrics. Evaluate sample essays using a scoring. Create examples of two types of essay. integrate. and essay contest for 7th graders, evaluate ideas and information #xF09E; Apply knowledge and essay on save water, skills .What#x2019;s So Great About Essay Questions? They allow assessment of students#x2019; abilities to: #xF09E; Formulate problems #xF09E; Organize. Forms and Uses of Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; May be used to measure knowledge of factual information Full potential realized with more higherorder thinking problems . science. organize. Research! Most widely used when the main focus is on student writing in any subject #xF097;Examples: distinguishing between narrative essays. integrate. math. and evaluate ideas in content areas such as: history. relate. On Save 2010! construct. expository essays. And Contrast Essay To Rainfall! literature.#xF09E; #xF09E; Useful in meeting learning outcomes concerned with the abilities to conceptualize. civics. and persuasive essays or focusing on writing process . etc.
Confucius Say#x2026; The freedom of response provided by essay questions is not an all-or-nothing affair but. a matter of degrees. rather. Restricted Response ExtendedResponse . Restricted Response Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Usually limits both the content and the response by restricting the on save water 2010, scope of the topic to qualitative vs quantitative research, be discussed. generally indicated in water, the question Useful for measuring learning outcomes requiring interpretation and application of data in a specific area Any outcomes measured by an objective interpretive exercise can be measured by a restricted response essay question . State the ecology essay questions, main differences between the Vietnam War and previous wars in which the essay on save water 2010, United States has participated. Runner Essay! Do not use those examples discussed in class. .Examples of Restricted Response Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Describe two situations that demonstrate the essay water 2010, application of the law of supply and global case study, demand. Why is the barometer one of the most useful instruments for forecasting weather? Answer in a brief paragraph. The Restricted Response essay question provides for more ease of essay assessment. Is there a better method for evaluating complex achievement#x2026; . but it restricts the global study, scope of the topic to be discussed and indicates the nature of the desired response to the student which limits his or her opportunity to on save, demonstrate these behaviors on their own. and to integrate and evaluate ideas as they deem appropriate Places value on case studies marketing higher-order thinking skills .Extended-Response Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; Freedom of essay on save response allows student to select information that they think is pertinent. to organize the and contrast, answer in accordance with their best judgment. Bush. .Examples of ExtendedResponse Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; Imagine that you and a friend found a magic wand. Cite examples when possible.
Compare developments in international relations in the administrations of President William Clinton and President George W. Write a story about an adventure that you and your friend had with the magic wand. write .To Keep Things Simple#x2026; #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Objective Interpretive.supply Extended-Response Essay.select Restricted Response Essay. content Legibility Hard to essay water, formulate ideas in time Takes longer to grade .Pros Cons of Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Apply your knowledge They give student the options to chose what they want to write about reasoning The teacher can tell if the student studies or not Can often prepare in advance what to write #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Time consuming Grading: grammar usage vs. properly framing questions.clearly defining learning outcomes to marketing case study, be measured.reserve use of essay on save 2010 extended-response questions for learning outcomes that cannot be measured well objectively . Interview Studies! carefully following scoring rules.How Can We Change Those Cons to Pros? #xF09E; #xF09E; Unreliability. and obtaining practice in scoring Amount of time. try to obtain as representative a sample of learning outcomes as possible (accumulate a series of essay essays throughout the school year to be included in kite runner essay, a writing portfolio) .#xF09E; Limited Sampling. #xF09E; #xF09E; Suggestions for Constructing Essay Questions Restrict use of on save essays to learning outcomes that cannot be measured well objectively Construct questions that call forth skills specified in learning standards Example box on marketing page 235 . .#xF09E; Phrase the 2010, question so that the students#x2019; task is compare essay snowfall to rainfall, clearly indicated Example: Poor: Compare the essay on save water, Democratic and Republican parties. Support your statements with examples when possible. (Your answer should be confined to two pages.
It will be evaluated in terms of the appropriateness of the facts and examples presented and the skill with which it is organized.#xF09E; Better: Compare the case study questions, current policies of the Democratic and Republican parties with regard to essay, the role of government in compare and contrast essay snowfall, private business.) . #xF09E; Indicate an approximate time limit for each question Now that we have essay questions how do we score them? . Scoring Essay Questions Tips to remember#x2026; #xF09E; Use clear specifications of scoring criteria #xF09E; Inform students of scoring criteria #xF09E; Use an initial review to find #x201C;anchor#x201D; responses for on save water 2010 comparison #xF09E; Use descriptive rather than judgmental scores or levels (#x201C;writing is clear and thoughts are complete#x201D; vs. #x201C;excellent#x201D;) . the teacher would construct a list of acceptable reasons and give the student 1 point for kite essay each of up to water, three reasons given from the forgiveness kite, list .Scoring for Restricted Response Essay Questions #xF09E; In most instances. if the student is asked to describe three factors that contributed to the start of the EDSA people power. the essay, teacher should write an example of an studies marketing, expected response #xF097;For example. Scoring for ExtendedResponse Essay Questions Analytic Scoring Rubrics #xF09E; Consist of a rubric broken down into essay on save 2010, key dimensions that will be evaluated #xF09E; Enables teacher to essay contest, focus on one characteristic of a response at a time #xF09E; Provides maximum feedback for students . but rather contain scores accompanied by essay statements of the characteristics of the response .Holistic Scoring Rubrics #xF09E; Yield a single overall score taking into vs quantitative, account the entire response #xF09E; Can be used to grade essays more quickly #xF09E; Does not provide as much specific feedback as analytic rubric #xF09E; Should not consist of on save water 2010 scores alone. Suggestions for Scoring Essay Questions #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Prepare an outline of the expected answer in advance and use a clear scoring rubric Use the scoring rubric that is most appropriate Decide how to handle factors that are irrelevant to the learning outcomes being measured . #xF09E; #xF09E; #xF09E; Evaluate all responses to one question before going on to the next one When possible. evaluate answers without looking at forgiveness kite runner the student#x2019;s name If especially important decisions are to be based on the results. obtain two or more independent ratings . SCORING RUBRIC FOR WRITTEN ESSAYS IN UPPER-LEVEL FL COURSES. ORGANIZATION AND FORMAT: GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, AND FLUENCY: Late submissions will be penalized by 10 points/day , if an extension is not suggested or approved ahead of essay on save 2010 time by professor. ALL WORK SUBMITTED MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY A SIGNED NC STATE ACADEMIC CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT HONOR PLEDGE.
ANY VIOLATION OF THE PLEDGE WILL RESULT IN A FAILING GRADE FOR THE PAPER . Adapted from: Hedgcock and essays, Lefkowitz,#x201C;Collaborative Oral/Aural Revision in Foreign Language Writing Instruction#x201D;, Journal of Second Language Writing 1(3):255-76, 1992, cited in 2010, Scott, Rethinking Foreign Language Writing, 1995, p. Kite Essay! 116.