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The 15 Best GRE Essay Tips to Improve Your Score. The GRE’s Analytical Writing section can be pretty intimidating. It’s the very first thing you’ll face when you sit down to take the exam, and you have to write two essays in one hour. No wonder a lot of students find it the most stressful part of the GRE! But fear not: to ecology ap biology help make the Analytical Writing section more approachable, I’ll teach you 15 great GRE essay tips to aid both the newbie and the experienced test taker. feature image credit: Essays!!/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original. 10 Awesome Overall GRE Writing Tips. We’ll start out with our best general GRE Analytical Writing tips to south mexican essay help you prepare for both essays. #1: Use POWERPREP Online to Type Your Essays. If you’re taking the computer-based GRE, practice the essay using POWERPREP Online. PowerPrep Tests 1 and 2 have built-in essay answering capabilities, as does the ap biology essay, Preview Tool; after writing on personal essay didion the prompts in ap biology essay, the program, you can continue to use those capabilities to write additional essays.
Read more about how to get the on save 2010, most out of PowerPrep with this article. If for some reason you can’t get PowerPrep to work, it’s okay to ecology essay practice the essay with another word processor (like Word, OpenOffice, or GoogleDocs). Tv Shows! However, to essay make your experience more realistic, make sure to avoid using any of the following when writing your essay: shortcuts (including ones for cut, paste, select all, and undo), spellcheck and grammar check , and the redo and copy functions. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and personal didion your strengths and weaknesses. Not sure what to study? Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and questions don't know what to study.
You may be surprised to find how much lacking these extras affects the speed of qualitative vs quantitative essays, your essay writing. For example, while there is an “undo” feature in the GRE word processor, you can’t access it by CTL+Z or CMD+Z, a shortcut that’s drilled into muscle memory for most people familiar with word processors; instead, you must click the “Undo” button. Time pressure is part of what makes the GRE essays difficult. If you’re not taking the test under realistic conditions, including with time limits , then you’re not practicing in ecology ap biology essay questions, a way that’s going to help you on test day. If you’re really struggling with the timed part of the what is a closing paragraph about, GRE essays, you could try writing as much as you can in 30 minutes, marking where you are when the timer runs out, continuing to questions write until you’re finished, and didion then marking how long that took. This technique is ecology essay questions, not as useful for GRE Writing practice as it might be for Verbal or Quantitative practice because there is no set amount you have to write or set points you have to cover. However, marking when you hit the time limit and continuing to write until you’re finished with the essay could be helpful to help you readjust your expectations for what you can accomplish on the essay in 30 minutes vs. what you might think an ideal essay should look like, given enough time. In general, though, do stick to the 30-minute time limit for reading the on reality tv shows, task and writing your answer for each practice essay.
#3: Grade Your Essays With the Official Rubrics. Be ruthless in ecology essay, identifying your essay weaknesses by comparing your GRE essays to the standards set forth in the rubrics for the Issues and qualitative vs quantitative research essays Arguments essays and grading your practice essays accordingly. Don’t give yourself the benefit of the doubt, because the GRE essay grader and computer program grader won’t. Sample GRE essays at each score point are helpful in giving you concrete examples of the points made in the rubric for ecology essay, each score level (as we’ll discuss in the next GRE essay tip). South! If you’re still concerned you can’t be objective enough about your own writing, find a GRE essay buddy to ecology ap biology questions help you grade your work according to the rubrics.
#4: Write Practice Essays With Pre-Existing Samples You Can Compare. When choosing essay prompts to didion practice on, you should start out by choosing topics that ETS has sample essays on ecology essay questions , so you can compare your responses to the anchor ones that have already been scored by ETS. Understanding the GRE writing rubric is important for doing well on what is a closing paragraph in research papers the test, since that’s what the real GRE essay graders will be using to score your responses, but it can sometimes be difficult to take the abstract ideals of a rubric and see how your own writing measures up. It’s easier to see how you’ve done when you compare your writing to how others have written on the same topic. Currently, the ETS website has one Issues task and questions one Argument task with sample scored essay responses free and personal publicly available.
There are two additional instances each for the Issues and ecology ap biology questions Argument tasks in what is a closing paragraph about in research papers, the answer keys of Chapters 8 and 9 of ecology questions, The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd edition) . To get access to these four prompts with sample essays, you can either purchase the guide or take it out of your local library, if they have it. There are 328 official GRE writing prompts available (152 Issue and 176 Argument), so there’s very little point in practicing for the essay with non-official prompts. The only reason to use non-official GRE essay prompts is if they’re the six bonus prompts on ScoreItNow! which will get your essay scored by the e-scorer software that the real GRE uses (more on that below). Otherwise, writing practice essays on is a closing non-official prompts is just not worth it. #6: Do Mock Analyses of Official Prompts. As mentioned in the previous tip, there are so many GRE essay prompts that you won’t run out of topics to practice with (unless you’re planning on spending 164 hours doing practice Analytical Writing essays). Because of questions, this, you can supplement your GRE Writing practice by practicing outlining essays without having to write out a full essay.
For practice Issue essay outlines, you should come up with at least three examples and a few bullet points to explain how each one supports your point. Work on not just explaining the essays on reality tv shows, content of each example, but on showing how the example is relevant to the issue and why the example is evidence to back up your position. For practice Argument essay outlines, come up with at least three points of analysis and essay a few bullet points to explain the importance of each. These points of analysis could be the on save water, assumptions made in essay, the argument, what evidence is on reality tv shows, needed to evaluate the argument, alternative explanations, and ecology ap biology questions so on. Three points/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original.
#7: Try ScoreItNow! or POWERPREP PLUS Online. For $20, ScoreItNow! lets you get two essays on real GRE prompts (plus six essays on qualitative vs quantitative bonus non-official prompts) scored by ap biology questions the e-rater used for the real GRE. You won’t receive human grading on your essays, but you will at what is a closing, least receive a grade and insights into how the e-rater might score your writing on the real test. If you write fewer than 50 or more than 1,000 words you’ll get an “advisory” notice and won’t get a grade on ecology ap biology essay ScoreItNow! (although if the reason you got an thinking and decision making paper advisory notice is because your essay was too long, you can get a refund). ScoreItNow! is pretty pricey ($10 per real GRE essay scored) so it’s not a good choice for everyone, but if you are concerned about how your writing will fare on the GRE, particularly with a computer grader, it’s good to ecology questions know this is an option. An even more expensive option is purchasing a POWERPREP PLUS Online practice test ($39.95 per what paragraph test per purchase; you may only take the test once per purchase, and it expires after 90 days). With each of the two adaptive practice tests, you’ll be able to submit one Issue and one Argument essay to be scored by the e-rater. Ecology Ap Biology Questions! You should only go with this option if you plan on taking advantage of the full computer-based practice test as well as getting your essays scored; otherwise, ScoreItNow! is the more cost-effective option for official GRE essay grading.
#8: Leave Time to Review and Edit Your Work. As I mentioned in the first tip, the GRE Writing word processor has no spell check, no grammar check, and no auto-correct. Vs Quantitative Essays! Because of this, it’s likely you’ll make some mistakes when you’re writing your essay, especially if you’re typing fast. It’s okay to ap biology essay questions make a few small mistakes , but if your essay is and decision paper, riddled with spelling and grammatical errors, that will make it difficult to understand, which will have a negative effect on your score. Take a look at the two examples below: Example with too many errors : Genetics is not density.
The argument that naure is paramount over ap biology essay questions, nurture failes, to ake into water acount, the eyr reel affects that environment can ahve on behavior. Example with minor errors : Genetics is ecology essay, not destiny. The argument that naure is paramount over nurture fails to take into water account the very reel effects that environment can have on behavior. In the second example, there are still some errors (“naure” instead of ecology ap biology, “nature,” “reel” instead of “real”), but the meaning is much clearer. Leaving yourself time to paragraph in research read over and edit your work will make sure you don’t end up with an essay that looks like the first example. In other cases, it’s necessary to edit for clarity not only for mechanical things like spelling and ecology ap biology questions punctuation, but also to make sure your ideas are organized in essay didion, a way that makes sense. This illustrated in the two contrasting examples below: Out of order : Because Dr. Field visited only Tertia, while Dr. Karp visited “the group of islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the ecology essay questions, children Dr. Karp interviewed were primarily from islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures.
Similarly, without knowing more about the sample sizes of Dr. Essay Water 2010! Field and Dr. Karp’s studies and of the populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at all comparable. Another important question that would need to be answered in order to ap biology essay questions make this recommendation would be whether or not the group of islands including Tertia that Dr. Personal! Karp visited had similar cultures. Better ordered : Another important question that would need to be answered in order to make this recommendation would be whether or not the group of islands including Tertia that Dr. Karp visited had similar cultures. Because Dr.
Field visited only ecology questions, Tertia, while Dr. Karp visited “the group of islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the children Dr. Karp interviewed were primarily from islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures. Paper! Similarly, without knowing more about the ecology questions, sample sizes of Dr. Field and Dr. Karp’s studies and of the essay 2010, populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at all comparable. #9: You Don’t Need a Perfect GRE Essay Score. Your GRE Writing score is a very, very small part of most grad school apps. A 4.5 or above is good enough for most programs , and ap biology essay questions there’s certainly no need to sweat over not getting a perfect 6.0. The reason for this is that even if the rest of paper, your application is ecology essay questions, mediocre, a high Writing score won’t have a huge positive effect on personal your chances.
Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to ecology ap biology questions you so you get the most effective prep possible. Try our 5-day full access trial for qualitative vs quantitative research essays, free: Once you manage to get a 4.5 (or higher, if programs you’re applying to have a higher score cut-off), it’s far better to spend your time on your Verbal and Quantitative scores, GRE subject test scores, or other parts of your grad school applications. #10: Write Essays as Part of Full-Length Practice Tests. The Analytical Writing questions are the first section on the GRE, so you’ll be full of energy as well as test-taking adrenaline.
However, this first hour of ap biology essay, writing is then followed by on save 2010 4-5 more sections (depending on whether or not you get an experimental section), so you can’t expend all your energy in the essays. As part of your preparation for the GRE, you need to learn how to conserve your concentration and ecology ap biology questions stamina, and the best way to do this is by taking realistic practice tests. This ties in with the water 2010, advice in ap biology essay questions, Tips 1, 2, and qualitative vs quantitative 5, which all aim to get you the most realistic testing experience possible. Only by doing a practice GRE in ecology ap biology questions, realistic conditions can you know what will be a problem for you on test day and address the south park mexican, issue. keep it/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. In addition to ecology ap biology essay our top ten general GRE Analytical Writing tips, we have five strategies specific to the two different types of essay questions. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an on save Issue Advice.
For the Issue essay, you’re asked to explain whether you agree or disagree with something and why. Ecology! The general structure of the task means that there are a couple of things you can do to write a good essay on every Issues prompt, no matter the topic. Thinking And Decision! Our GRE Writing tips below will help you craft a clear and ecology ap biology compelling response. Issues Tip 1: Always Include a Thesis Statement. If there’s only one tip you follow about the GRE Issue essay, it should be this one: always, ALWAYS include a thesis that clearly articulates your position , whether you agree or disagree with the perspective presented. If you don’t state a position, you are neglecting a fundamental aspect of the Issue essay task. There are six different variations on the issue task wording, but every single one of them requires you to essays tv shows either discuss your views explicitly or explain whether you agree or disagree with a given statement, recommendation, or claim.
Failing to essay state your point of view in your essay makes it impossible for the graders to judge how well you’ve supported your position, and essays on reality tv shows will result in ecology ap biology essay questions, a low essay score. Issue Tip 2: Preplan Essay Opinions and essay didion Examples. You can’t memorize 152 different essays for each possible Issues prompt, but there are enough similarities between the different prompts that you can research some examples ahead of ecology questions, time to use as support. Start by essay 2010 formulating your own opinions about essay questions common issues topics like the role of government and public officials, activities in everyday life, and teaching. Next, pick evidence you can use to support each of those opinions. This evidence can be either reasoning or examples drawn from historical events or current events.
When it comes time for thinking, the Issue essay, you’ll be able to draw from this pool of ap biology essay questions, examples and reasoning to support your position; at the very least, even if the exact examples or reasoning isn’t applicable to the specific topic, you’ll be in the habit of thinking of personal essay, ways examples and reasoning could support your point of view. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an Argument Advice. For all “Analyze an ecology ap biology essay questions Argument” Analytical Writing questions, you’re asked to judge the soundness of an argument. Below, we have three GRE writing tips to help with writing analyze an essay argument essays successfully. Don’t get caught up in analyzing whether the author’s claims are true or false, or whether or not you agree with them or what your own views are – that’s not the task. Instead, analyze the ecology ap biology essay questions, logic behind the argument being made and the flaws (or lack of flaws) in the argument’s construction. Staying focused on the task may take practice, as you might find it difficult to be objective about some of the qualitative vs quantitative, arguments made due to personal experience or outrage at essay, some of the personal essay, logical jumps being made.
To do well on the argument essay, harness that rage into questions analysis and explanation of how the argument is flawed. Argument Tip 2: Only Write About Major Points. Because you only have 30 minutes for the GRE argument essay, you don’t have to analyze every single facet of the argument. It’s more important to analyze major features that contribute to the argument’s efficacy (or lack thereof). Imagine yourself like a lawyer in a courtroom, trying to get across the story of the case to the jurors. You can’t dwell on every single detail that proves your opponent is incorrect or your case will be a shapeless mess of information, even if all of thinking and decision making, it is true. Questions! Instead, you need to hit the main points first and then, if you have time, you can circle back to minutiae. Argument Tip 3: Only Use Information Included in the Argument.
The GRE is pretty good about park using made-up names and ap biology essay questions places for the prompts, so you won’t be tempted to use outside knowledge to vs quantitative essays make assumptions. Ecology Ap Biology Questions! Still, you should make sure you confine your analysis to what’s written in thinking making, the prompt only and don’t assume beyond what’s there. Sticking to questions the information included in and decision making, the prompt is an important part of completing many of the argument tasks, since the arguments are often flawed due to unstated assumptions. Ecology Ap Biology Essay! As a test taker, it’s your job to point out those flaws, not make more assumptions of your own. View the slide of the argument through the microscope of your analytical skills.
Looking for the source of all GRE Writing prompts? Look no further – we have over 60 official prompts and links to the others in south park, this complete list of GRE essay topics. Unsure of what a good GRE essay looks like? Then be sure to read through our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples. Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at ap biology questions, improving your score. Download it for water, free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in ecology questions, Music and what is a about papers Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Ecology Ap Biology Essay Questions! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel and essay fulfill their college and grad school dreams.
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How to Write Covered Call Options. Writing covered call options is a great way to boost your yield on stocks you already own, and involves a lot less risk than most investors think. A call option gives the owner the right to buy a stock at ap biology questions a certain price (the strike price). When you sell call options on research essays, stocks you own, you’re selling some other investor (your counterparty) the right to buy that stock from essay questions you in the future, if the price hits your strike price. For example, let’s say I own Coca-Cola (KO) , which is currently trading around 43.
If I sell a KO call option that expires in June and has a strike price of 45, one of two things could happen: Free Report: How to thinking paper, Hedge Portfolios with Options. Once considered a niche segment of the investing world, options trading has now gone mainstream. With little knowledge on the best strategies, you can use options to rig the ap biology questions odds in your favor and essay on save make trades that have up to ap biology essay, an 80% probability of success. Tv Shows. Find out how in this free report, How Options Work—and How to Hedge Portfolios with Options . Option 1: KO stays below 45 until the call expires in June. I get to keep my KO stock, and the amount I sold the call for ecology ap biology, (which is called premium). Option 2: KO rises above 45 before my call expires. The person who bought the call from me exercises the call, buying the stock from me for $45 per share. I get the money from the sale and essays the call premium, but I don’t own the stock any more. To write a covered call option, choose a stock you already own and for ecology essay, which there is an essay, options market. Decide how many calls you would like to write (writing means selling).
Each call gives the owner the right to buy 100 shares of ecology questions that stock, so if you own 200 shares of park Coca-Cola (KO), you can write two calls. Since the option will only get exercised if the stock rises, the best stocks to ap biology essay, use (assuming you want to keep them) are stocks that you don’t think will go up right away. On Save. Stocks in sideways trends are good candidates. Next, pick a strike price and when you would like the calls to expire. If you sell calls expiring soon, there’s less risk that your stock will rise above the strike price and get called away. But if you sell longer-dated calls (calls that don’t expire for ecology essay questions, a few months), you’ll get paid more. Same with the strike price: if you sell calls at a strike price closer to the current price, you’ll get paid more, but there’s also a greater chance that your stock will hit that price and get called away. Essays. It’s a risk vs. reward tradeoff.
Now, find out what someone will pay for those calls. As of ecology ap biology this writing, the market is paying 53 cents for September 45 KO calls. That means you can sell someone the right to buy your KO stock at qualitative vs quantitative 45 until mid-September, and they’ll pay you 53 cents per share for ecology ap biology, that right. If that seems too risky—if you think it’s likely that KO will hit 45 by September—you can sell shorter-dated calls or calls with a higher strike price. But you won’t get paid as much. The market will pay 19 cents for personal didion, June 45 calls, which might be acceptable to you. Or you can raise your strike price too, but your premium dwindles even more—for June 50 calls, you’ll only get three cents. The market thinks it’s unlikely that KO will move to 50 by mid-June, so taking on that risk doesn’t earn you much.
How to Profit from Covered Call Options. Let’s say we write the September 45 KO call for a premium of 53 cents. Ecology Ap Biology Essay Questions. For each contract, we collect $53 when we sell the call. So now we have 100 shares of KO, $53 in cash, and the obligation to vs quantitative research, sell our shares for $45 each if they get there before September. Here’s what could happen next: Scenario 1: Desired Outcome. If KO stays below 45 until the calls expire in September, the calls expire worthless. Ecology Ap Biology Essay Questions. We get to keep our stock plus the $53 we made by selling the call. Nice! Scenario 2: But Stocks Can Go Down … As long as KO stays below 45 for the next five months, our call will expire worthless and we’ll get to keep the $53 premium. Essays On Reality Tv Shows. But what if the stock doesn’t stay just below 45, it goes down?
We’ll have to absorb the losses from the ecology ap biology stock’s decline, and it will gradually eat into our profit. If KO falls to 42.47, our call premium will be erased, and we’ll essentially have broken even. And if KO continues to fall, we’ll get further into the hole—and may want to consider selling the stock and is a in research papers closing our call position. Scenario 3: No Stock, But Money! Lastly, if KO rises above 45 before our calls expire in September, the owner of the call will exercise his right to buy our shares for $45 each. We’ll have to sell our stock for $45 per ecology questions share, regardless of where KO is on reality tv shows, trading at expiration. If KO has gone up a lot, we’ll miss out on some upside—rats. But we’ll earn $253: our call premium, plus the $2 per share appreciation in KO.
Selling covered call options is particularly popular among income investors because you can generate high yields in a short amount of time. If our KO trade works perfectly, we earn 53 cents per $43 share, effectively generating a 1.2% yield in five months. Our maximum profit is capped at ecology $253, but we’re not taking on any additional risk by selling the calls (other than the risk of KO going down that we were already exposed to, and in fact, we’ve mitigated some of that.) Note: This piece was reprinted from the south essay April 26 issue of Cabot Dividend Investor, which recommends investments that offer consistent income to its readers. Ecology Ap Biology Essay Questions. Each month, Chloe tackles an aspect of income investing that’s important to her subscribers. On Reality. If you’re interested in joining Cabot Dividend Investor, click here. Retired or Thinking About Retirement?
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essay on rum AUSTRALIA HAS MORE land per capita than any other continent.[i] When the great European powers set out to conquer the Americas, Africa and the Great South Land they encountered both closely settled and sparsely spread communities. Even if Australia's Aboriginal population was more than 1 million, it was very sparse. [ii] Europeans arriving from the cities and towns of the industrial revolution grasped the prospect of land acquisition and ecology ap biology essay, ownership on an unimaginable scale. Coming from societies where land ownership and landlords' rights were at the heart of political power, they saw a continent without fences, without a trace of the feudal land laws that had moulded their home counties. The cycle of land speculation began with the First Fleet and has continued unabated ever since. Essay Didion! Land speculation has been central to the Australian experience and resulted for essay a while in research, the highest rate of owner-occupied housing in the world.
Australians, for generations, have demanded the right to buy (or even be given) land and to ecology ap biology proclaim their right to develop it for the highest possible economic return. Very few Australian political parties have ever been brave enough to question this notion at the heart of the national hobby of land speculation. The nature of land use has changed since first settlement, from the decline of small farming properties to the growth of tv shows infrastructure-intensive land use for mining and agribusiness. But since the cities grew much more rapidly, most of the ecology, property action, from the l880s boom in on reality, Melbourne, to the rash of ecology essay questions coastal developments since the 1960s, has taken place in urban and suburban settings. AT THE TIME of European settlement, Australia was very much a human, social landscape shaped by its indigenous custodians; an environment that was, in essay didion, quite a literal sense, a manufacture of the hands, firesticks, footprints and ap biology essay questions, ‘appetites' of Aboriginal Australians.[iii] Along with the guns, germs and grog, the white settlers brought ashore an on reality tv shows, idea fundamentally foreign to indigenous experience – the concept of land as a divisible and alienable commodity, to be owned by an individual rather than a community.[iv] The absence of any physical evidence of proprietary land ownership – fences, boundaries, allotments and improvements – led the newcomers to leap to the conclusion that the new land was theirs for ecology ap biology questions the taking. Through the self-justificatory prism of thinking making paper terra nullius , the indigenous populace was invisible as the settlers contemplated how the ecology ap biology essay questions, land could be acquired, used and resold.
This empty territory beneath the Union Jack was vested in the Crown, with colonial governors empowered to disburse land by mexican way of grant, to lay the essay, foundations for a productive economy. Land grants were first limited to emancipated convicts, then extended to essays tv shows free settlers and marines, and finally to officers. Governor Phillip exercised his power sparingly. Determined that the land be used productively, he insisted on occupation and improvement. The appointment of Major Francis Grose in 1792 – proprietor of the New South Wales Corps[v] – literally put the thieves in charge of the treasury. The quantities of ap biology land doled out escalated dramatically, as Grose allowed his officers to research help themselves. By 1828 they had carved up more than 1.2 million hectares of land.[vi] Exploiting their trade monopoly and the leverage this afforded, these commissioned rogues expanded their holdings even further, hustling distressed mortgagees and broken-spirited grantees into trading land on fire-sale terms, often for little more than a guzzle of rum. Essay Questions! The officers' own troops were particularly susceptible to and decision paper their avaricious intent and liquid terms of trade, as Richard Atkins (who would later become the colony's judge-advocate and was himself not averse to ecology essay questions a drop) noted with dismay in 1794:
Governments giving Grants was surely intended for essays on reality tv shows other purposes than that of giving a Soldier a few Gallons of Spirit. Ap Biology Essay Questions! Yet that is the case, 2, 3 or 4 Gall: of Spirit will get a grant of 25 Acres. It is general for every Soldier indiscriminately has a grant, and of the whole amount g to 400, not 30 have kept them. [vii] DESPITE THE COLONIAL authorities, original hope that granted land would be put to productive use, to the Rum Corps land was as much a commodity as alcohol. Unlike the and decision, dispossessed original inhabitants, for whom it was a source of shelter, sustenance and spirituality, the mercantile overlords of the officer caste were interested in land for one purpose – speculation; less than a 10th of land distributed by decree was cleared, a 40th cultivated.[viii] Attempts to discourage speculation by ecology ap biology Lachlan Macquarie and later administrations met with rancour and defiance, as the profiteers resisted any attempt to dilute their easily acquired privilege. The British Government handed out vast tracts of arable land for peanuts in both NSW and Tasmania. Bargain-basement deals were done with British financial interests, keen to sink their teeth into and bite off chunky profits in the new colony. The Australian Agricultural Company and essay water 2010, Van Diemen's Land Company benefited particularly from this official largesse, acquiring huge holdings for minimal outlay. These handouts set the scene for the emergence of questions colonial dynasties, such as the mexican essay, Macarthurs, and ecology essay questions, set the foundations for the new colony's old money empires. The Rum Corps era of free grants also ensured that the owning or leasing of property would be central to the new society being created.
Speculation and acquisition were quickly entrenched in the antipodean colonies. THE CROSSING OF the Blue Mountains by Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson in 1813 paved the way for further land grabs. Desperate convicts who dreamt of a fabled Shangri-la beyond the Great Dividing Range were bitterly disappointed, but for the acquisitive and qualitative research, avaricious the vast tracts of grassland over the mountains were a speculative paradise. Legislation in 1829 divided the new lands into strictly defined portions, the Nineteen Counties, settlement outside which was prohibited on pain of prosecution. Questions! With limited resources and the inability to and decision making paper properly police such a vast area, the colonial authorities were playing little more than a game of bluff. Population pressures, increasing livestock numbers and sheer lust for land quickly led to ap biology essay the emergence of squatting, as settlers moved beyond the established county boundaries and pegged out their own in defiance of the essay water, administration. Ecology Ap Biology! With little effective recourse, the Government reluctantly accepted the presence of the squatters and handed over Crown land for nominal lease and licence fees. Pioneers, some motivated solely by greed, claimed much of the continent. While the house rules varied, speculative interests invariably held the winning hand. In South Australia EG Wakefield's theories of tv shows colonisation, which attempted to ecology questions regularise the process of land distribution and settlement dispersion through fixed uniform sales and systematic selection of immigrants, were abandoned after the fledgling colony became bankrupt in 1841.
Absentee land-holders and speculators moved in, clinging to Adelaide while buying and selling property, lining their own accounts but not adding to essay 2010 those of the strained colony. Western Australia adopted a pragmatic approach from the outset, rewarding rather than resisting squatters by granting secure tenure and bonuses to those who discovered new pastures.[ix] The opening up of ecology questions Queensland produced a land rush of enormous and bloody dimensions. The quest for acquisition and the expansion of the white frontier occasioned a quiet but vicious dispossession of the indigenous population, as settlers with both the will and qualitative vs quantitative research, the weapons brutally extended the concept of ecology ap biology absolute and exclusive proprietary right over a previously communal resource.[x] Meanwhile, back in NSW and Victoria, policy attempts, such as the selection acts of the early 1860s, which aimed at south mexican essay, ensuring productive use and dispersing the land ownership, were overborne by raw cupidity as the grab-and-hold ploys begun in the early years of settlement continued. Practices such as dummying and peacocking (picking the key riparian parcels of a run, leaving the residue useless to anyone else) ensured that regional lands remained locked away in the grip of the giant pastoral companies and kings in grass castles. The profit incentive overwhelmed any political attempts to regulate distribution and use of Australia's regional lands. Rapacity, not regulation, was the ap biology, guiding principle of early land distribution, sketching a framework for agricultural land holdings that endures to this day. The fact that the what about in research, Australian grazing industry remains an ecology ap biology, extreme example of land concentration, with millions of hectares held by and decision the top 50 producers, is testament to the colonial legacy.[xi] THE TENSIONS BETWEEN colonial power and the squattocracy mattered little, however, to the majority of Australians, who from the ecology essay questions, outset preferred the cities to the bush. As historian Graeme Davison has observed, colonial Australia was born urban and thinking and decision paper, quickly became suburban.[xii] Without the baggage of historical privilege and ecology ap biology essay, entrenched property ownership, newcomers saw the possibility of an essay on save 2010, urban lifestyle unimaginable in the crowded and stifling British metropolises. Nineteenth-century Australia, with its air of wholesomeness and space,[xiii] booming economy and dispersed wealth, offered inhabitants the opportunity for previously unattainable levels of domestic independence.
An Englishman's home was his castle, and in Australia, every man, it seemed, might have one. By the late 1830s, estate agents in Sydney, Melbourne, Hobart and Adelaide were urging shopkeepers and tradesmen, as well as gentlemen and merchants, to acquire their own suburban estates.[xiv] Australia had inherited the English common-law land system where a vendor proved the right to sell land by producing deeds showing a chain of ownership. Sir Robert Torrens, a South Australian politician, introduced legislation in 1858 that created a statutory system of land legislation that simplified the transfer or sale or land. Taken up promptly by all the other colonies, by the 1880s the Australian Torrens System had been adopted in some American states and Canadian provinces.
Land law in Australia remains under the legal jurisdiction of state governments, which continue to benefit from stamp-duty revenue on ecology ap biology questions the sale of land and south essay, property, especially in ecology ap biology essay, booms. [xv] Seizing the liberal finance opportunities offered by park mexican essay pullulating building societies, from the late 1870s, Australians scrambled for ap biology questions blocks on the suburban estates that opened up along expanding rail and tram networks in the major cities. Bricks and mortar spread like a lava flood[xvi] across the fringes of Australia's cities, as the personal essay, middle and lower classes sought domestic castles – surrounded, of course, by ecology essay moats of trim lawn and proper gardens. Thus, in the second half of the 19th century, the Great Australian Dream was born, an ideal propagated feverishly by all major political factions and parties. Conservatives pointed to home ownership as the park mexican essay, very embodiment of liberalism's self-help ethos, while Labor saw domestic dominion as the divine right of ecology ap biology questions every man in the working man's paradise.
Regardless of thinking political persuasion, property ownership assumed a central importance in the Australian psyche – something far more than a means of providing security and essay, shelter, but an utterly essential component of the Australian way of life.[xvii] By the on reality tv shows, beginning of the 1880s, almost half of Australia's housing stock was owned or being bought by its inhabitants, one of the highest levels of essay owner-occupation in the industrialised world.[xviii] Although ownership levels plateaued for the first half of the south park, 20th century, they spiked again after World War II. The long postwar boom, lifting of rent controls, low interest rates and relatively cheap suburban building blocks (without the upfront infrastructure contribution demanded by ecology ap biology essay councils in recent years) saw home ownership continue to rise. Higher incomes, assisted by generous federal and state subsidy arrangements, spurred home ownership levels to 70 per cent of the population by 1961 – then the world's highest.[xix] In the uncertainty of the postwar era, buying a home was not just a way of securing a slice of the backyard way of life but of playing a role in the very defence of the nation against the noxious threat of communism. As one Queensland Labor MP remarked, home ownership would slow down the march of essays tv shows communism by ecology ap biology giving people pride of ownership.[xx] DESPITE THE IDEALS that property ownership supposedly embodied thrifty individualism or the egalitarianism of a property-owning democracy, its popularity was underpinned more by desire for residential and qualitative vs quantitative research essays, financial security than any moral imperative. Indeed, Australians have long been persuaded that the fortunes gouged out by Rum Corps brigands and early pastoralists might also be available to the ordinary person in ecology ap biology questions, the property game, where everyone, it seems, could be a winner. As early as 1886, a Sydney land company was entreating citizens, rich and poor, to speculate in suburban land. Always resaleable, land could bring returns of 100 per cent and more within a year. Essays On Reality Tv Shows! Banks might fail but land could not.[xxi]
At the start of the 21st century, almost one fifth of ecology essay questions all Australian households owned or was buying at least one other property and many were property owners manque through superannuation and personal essay didion, property trusts. With munificent state and federal incentives – cash grants, tax and interest-rate concessions and essay questions, other forms of assistance – helping to fund property ownership, many Australians increasingly expanded their property holdings to include not just the family home but a holiday home and essay didion, sometimes additional investment properties. The political preference for home ownership and a corresponding lack of emphasis on public housing not only drove owner-occupancy levels to unparalleled heights but also left the rental market open to private interests. With public spending directed toward the ecology ap biology essay questions, subsidisation of home ownership and institutional investors uninterested, the housing needs of those who lacked either the desire or the means to essays on reality acquire dwellings was met by essay questions a growing class of petty landlords. Appetites whetted by the family home being a capital-gains-tax-free asset on qualitative vs quantitative research which further finance could be raised, Australians with incomes over $40,000 and ecology ap biology essay questions, household incomes over $70,000[xxii] increasingly used negative gearing to buy residential and even commercial property.[xxiii] In the process, we became not only a nation of proud home owners but a country of amateur landlords. The convergence of the Great Australian Dream of is a paragraph about owning a detached house with the Great Australian Hobby of ecology essay property speculation[xxiv] pushed our cities up and out.
The edges of Australian metropolitan areas sprawled ever wider, greying out green space with kerbs, gutters and coral-tiled roofs as the desire for life in a suburban setting continued unabated. The best capital gains, however, stuck stubbornly to the inner-urban areas, where land was scarce and expensive. To maximise investment returns, investors and speculators thus began to build up, rather than out. Despite the cultural attachment to the free-standing house and an accompanying popular loathing of flats and high-rises, investors reasoned that six, 12 or 20 flats took up little if any more room than a single dwelling or two, generated a much more attractive rate of return and personal, were likely to be cheaper to maintain than a detached house. These prisons in ap biology, the sky weren't being built with the owner-occupier in mind. About! It was every man's right to ecology questions own a home, but the single mums, the elderly poor, the is a closing in research papers, unemployed and ecology ap biology essay, newlyweds priced out of park mexican essay this ideal would have to make do with renting, quite possibly for ecology ap biology life.[xxv] While this remains a common option in many societies, including Europe, such societies have a tradition of much longer leases and much greater security of tenancy than in Australia, where the what is a closing in research papers, norm is a year-to-year lease and a landlord can easily remove tenants by the simple ruse of stating that the property is to ecology essay questions be sold. Once the tenant is out, the landlord can re-lease at the highest rent the market will bear. Rental bond boards in every state now give tenants some protection but nothing other than much longer leases will give them any real security of housing tenure. BY THE MID-1960s, Australia was in the throes of yet another boom. First flats and then, once the problem of how to freehold air space was solved with strata-title legislation, high-rise units mushroomed in inner-urban areas, especially in Sydney and on the Gold Coast. Essay On Save 2010! In a frenzy of egalitarian speculation, engineers became builders, builders re-emerged as developers and developers were transformed into financiers, while teachers and public servants poured their superannuation and jam-tin savings into speculative off-the-plan developments in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Investors large and small tripped over ecology essay questions themselves to pour their cash into real estate: everybody is an expert and lack of knowledge is not considered a handicap, as one contemporary pundit noted.[xxvi] When this bubble inevitably burst in the mid-1970s, office towers had reshaped city skylines, vacant estate wastelands fringed the didion, metropolitan outskirts, three-storey walk-up unit blocks studded the inner suburbs and ecology essay questions, miscreants and insolvents filled the law courts. [xxvii] The thirst for water profit from property during this period was unquenchable and nothing was an ap biology questions, obstacle to those bent on essay extracting money from otherwise unusable land. Questions! From the 1960s, the white-shoe brigade and blue-sky dreamers began imagining ways in which to thinking and decision bend and, as necessary, break coastal environments, hopeful of conjuring up profitable markets from mudflats. Alfred Grant developed large parcels of land at Buderim Mountain on the Sunshine Coast, converting banana plantations to ecology ap biology essay building blocks and undertook the original subdivision for the Kawana Waters canal estates. He was ahead of the pack but he went broke in the credit squeeze in is a closing paragraph in research papers, 1961. Lead by magnate-cum-mayor Bruce Small, developers set about importing the waterside lifestyle of the Florida Keys to the swamplands of the Gold Coast and northern NSW. Delicate estuarine systems and mangrove flats were dredged, filled and transformed into saleable blocks of land fronting placid canal waterways with names such as Miami Keys and ap biology, Paradise Island. The 1977 abolition of death duties in Queensland enticed leisure lizards and the new rich north with the promise of essay on save water 2010 a carefree, low-tax lifestyle in an aquatic playground.
The developers didn't stand still for long enough to ap biology essay see that their man-made waters were often muddy, stagnant and unproductive,[xxviii] better suited to hosting midges than toasting margaritas – the profits were too great to ignore. Their monuments are to be found in marina and golf course complexes from Sanctuary Cove to Port Douglas. They have wreaked environmental havoc at Nelly Bay on Magnetic Island, Queensland, compromised the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and been baled out by thinking paper both conservative and Labor governments.[xxix] Bargain-basement building blocks, mostly aimed at investors with a few bob to spare, were offered at remote parts of the Ninety Mile Beach, Gippsland, Victoria, the mudflats overlooking Westernport, Victoria, on the Queensland's Moreton Bay islands and on the Sunshine Coast's wallum in Queensland. Ocean Shores, today a sedate residential neighbourhood on the northern NSW coast populated by retirees, began life in ecology questions, 1968 as the dream of American property magnate Paul Stocker. Having bought up hectares of farmland, Stocker imagined Australia's newest prestige address on the site, a mega-resort replete with multimillion dollar clubhouse, golf course, yacht club, marina, private beach club, multistorey apartments and thousands of house sites. Bulldozers were brought in to clear the scrub and fill the creeks, CIA agents were enlisted to sell allotments to United States troops in Vietnam, and singer Pat Boone became the project's chief spruiker. And Decision Making! By the early 1980s, despite the ecology ap biology questions, well-renumerated palaver, few blocks had been bought and vs quantitative research, even fewer built on. Ap Biology Essay! Ocean Shores was little more than a kerbed desert and an official government planning report declared that it had little to recommend it in terms of convenience as a residential location or tourist destination.[xxx] Entrepreneur Alan Bond bought into the development, promising it would one day host the thinking and decision, America's Cup. Instead Bond went to jail and ap biology questions, the America's Cup never came to the east coast.[xxxi] DESPITE A BRIEF flirtation with stocks and shares brought on by the vs quantitative essays, privatisations and ap biology, demutualisations in the 1980s and dotcom hysteria of the late 1990s, real estate prices remain a hot topic of personal essay didion conversation among most Australians, including those who can't afford to buy. Politicians boast of the cranes towering over city centres erecting high-rise citadels.[xxxii] The current crop of Meriton moneyboxes provide investment vehicles for ecology essay questions retiring baby boomers, suitable for south letting to their children, the knowledge workers chasing an inner-city global lifestyle of lattes, laptops and ap biology essay, lavash.
Culturally, the buying and selling of property has recently become the qualitative vs quantitative research essays, topic of prime-time television programs, mixing real estate hype with advice about renovation and presentation, especially for resale. The high point of this obsession came in ap biology essay questions, the final episode of The Block, watched by even more people than an another captivating fairytale, Princess Diana's funeral. Tv Shows! Australians have taken their Burke's Backyard love affair with the ap biology, garden one step further and what paragraph about in research papers, embraced real estate as a central tenet of national life.[xxxiii] THE AUSTRALIAN APPETITE for ecology essay questions consuming the landscape is no better demonstrated than in high-rise buildings with water views – the park mexican, mainstay of the Queensland and Sydney speculative markets – and in canal development. Views are a relatively new commodity. Ap Biology Questions! Most houses built on Sydney Harbour foreshores prior to World War II still faced the street, with their backs to the harbour, which was littered and polluted – a working harbour. Balconies were almost unknown. From the l950s, architects designed houses to essay face the water and ecology ap biology, the prewar stock has been expensively renovated to do the same.
The introduction of strata-title legislation in all states in the l960s underpinned an personal, apartment boom that has continued almost unabated ever since. Water views have driven the top end of the Sydney market. High-rise apartments now infest every coastal resort that allows them from Port Macquarie, NSW, to ecology questions Scarborough Beach in Perth. Even the Melbourne property market has discovered views. In the l950s and l960s the best views in Melbourne were to be had from the high-rise blocks built by the Victorian Housing Commission, but no longer. Developers in search of new products to offer to baby boomers and Asian investors have turned to high-rise apartments in and near the essays, CBD, just as they have in Brisbane. Most of these speculative apartments are built with one or two car spaces and essay questions, combined toilet/bathrooms, even though many of the is a paragraph about, renters, including overseas students, don't have cars and live in group households where separate toilets would make more sense. But development companies, whether they build for owner occupiers or investors, have little or no interest in who live in their new constructions, only ecology questions that they sell promptly and profitably.
At the didion, top end of the market, from the ecology ap biology questions, banks of the Brisbane River to essays on reality tv shows Circular Quay, the hyperbole and the structures are becoming more and more aggressive. Harry Seidler's Riparian Plaza on the Brisbane River has eight storeys of ecology ap biology above-ground parking so the millionaire inhabitants can have their Porches and BMWs to hand. Yet such tower blocks have better access to thinking making public transport than any other residences in Australia. Only places with wealthy residents, such as Noosa Heads, Byron Bay, Broome and Lorne – with hybrid pro-development and pro-environment factions on ecology ap biology essay questions their councils – have resisted the qualitative vs quantitative research essays, high-rise boom. While high-rise allows us to consume the view and ecology questions, dominate the research, landscape – casting shadows on essay questions the hoi polloi in essay on save, the immediate hinterland – canal developments take consumption of the landscape one step further. Developers, having been refused permission to colonise Australia's only coastal public space – the ap biology essay, beach – turned their attention instead to low-lying and mangrove areas to make canals, delivering absolute waterfront land on essay 2010 demand to a hungry public.
Huge mansions loom over the canals replete with pontoons, even if the owners can't afford to buy, let alone operate, the 20-metre yachts that some of these properties are designed to accommodate. One of the best ways to inspect such property in Australia is to hire a dinghy and ecology, explore the thinking and decision paper, canals of the Gold Coast and ecology, the Sunshine Coast, from Kawana Waters to Noosa. Essays Tv Shows! The Galbraithian formulation of private affluence and public squalor is ecology, nowhere better seen than when you leave the canal home in Kawana Waters and take the Nicklin Way to Caloundra, one of the ugliest, most congested bulky-goods strip ever to is a closing paragraph about in research papers grace a Western city. Funded by developers in ecology ap biology essay, the late l950s, this suburban strip was an exchange for subdivision rights to vast sections of coastal scrubland. The potential for canal development in Australia is almost unlimited. All of the cane fields abutting the northern rivers in NSW – including the Richmond and the Clarence – could be given over to canal development. The same could happen between Mt Coolum and Nambour in Queensland.[xxxiv] Melbourne does not lend itself to canal development. The nearest the hapless Victorians could do is redevelop their docklands, one of the windiest sites in the city. MEANWHILE, THE THEMES of our past echo clearly in the present. The peacocks that picked the eyes out of pastoral runs during the selection era of the mexican essay, 1860s have evolved into ap biology questions, today's vulture funds; cartels of wealthy urban professionals circling distressed vendors and drought-stricken farmers.[xxxv]Modern landowners and speculators are just as sensitive to politicians fooling about with the property game as the privileged castes of colonial times – the recent hostility that met Labor politician Mark Latham's mere suggestion that the subsidy of water negative gearing be reconsidered is reminiscent of the fury Governor Macquarie and successors encountered as they attempted to pry loose the venal grasp of the Rum Corps. Beneath the rhetoric of a property-owning democracy lies the fact that some citizens will never be able to afford homes of their own.
Some citizens will do this out of choice and have the financial resources to survive, but retired people without adequate incomes face a continuing battle to find affordable accommodation. Many have to use mobile homes at a last resort. The real estate binge has led to a phenomenal waste of building resources and the ruin of essay many of our environmentally sensitive landscapes, especially on the coast. Some parcels of land on the Gold Coast are now seeing their fifth structures in as many decades. While Aborigines were reinserted into the landscape with the vs quantitative, High Court Mabo decision in 1992 and its follow-up, the Wik judgement in 1996, their reappearance is somewhat chimerical. Despite the hysteria that greeted the High Court decisions and ecology essay, fears that suburban backyards and city streets would be swallowed up in Aboriginal land grabs across the nation, native title has had little, if any, impact on residential commercial real estate. Vs Quantitative Essays! Indeed, as journalist Paul Toohey noted on the 10th anniversary of the decision, native title is structured so Aborigines always take second place to white interests.[xxxvi] Thus, even in the resources and mining sector, where native title has presented most significantly, miners factor in the negotiation process with claimants as just another layer of expense in an industry that is capital-intensive. For well-funded miners and industrialists, quite accustomed to heavy cost burdens, Toohey noted: Outcomes are inevitable – you just have to scatter seeds to the blackfellas.[xxxvii] The lack of meaningful public-housing programs places those priced out of the housing market – an increasing number, including the most vulnerable segments of the populace – at the mercy of a private rental market that can be both expensive and capricious. The suburban girths of our cities spread ever outward, greedily eating up agricultural land and questions, green space and spitting it back as inefficient, monotonous housing estates, while housing affordability spirals out of reach of more and more people. Solutions are hard to find – as current debate shows, the top tiers of government prefer to blame one another for cost increases or to essays on reality advance lightweight solutions that might well do more harm than good.
The federal Treasurer's recent call for the states to unlock the lands and release more land on the urban fringes, would fuel speculative frenzy and feed the bloat of urban sprawl, and do little to make it affordable for those excluded from the market. All the while, central bankers, economists and real estate agents study the entrails of the monthly housing and investment statistics in an attempt to divine the course of the current bubble. Whether it ends with a sharp pop or a long hiss, history suggests we are unlikely to break our addiction to bricks and mortar. For when it comes to property, like the bunyip aristocrats, squatters and land hogs before us, it seems we just can't get enough. [i] On the concept of a property-owning democracy, see Leonie Sandercock, Cities for Sale , MUP, 1975,pp.213-231. [ii] See Noel Butlin Our Original Aggression: Aboriginal Populations of sout eastern Australia 1788 – 1850, Allen Unwin, 1983. [iii] Jim McAllister and essay, Barbara Geno, Class, Status and essay on save 2010, Land Conflict: The Democratisation of Grazing Lands in Queensland, Rural Society Vol 11, No 2 (2001), p. Ap Biology Essay! 116. [iv] See generally Henry Reynolds, Frontier: Aborigines, Setters and Land, Allen and Unwin, St Leonards, 1987. [v] John Birmingham, Leviathan: the unauthorised biography of Sydney , Knopf, Sydney, 1999, p. 253.
[vi] This and the following five paragraphs are mainly based on on reality tv shows RP Ringrose Louise Martin, Land Settlement entry in The Australian Encyclopaedia , 4 th edn, Grolier Society, Sydney1983. [vii] Richard Atkins, New South Wales Journal, 1794 Diary, Macquarie University Division of essay Law. Available at:http://www.law.mq.edu.au/scnsw/html/atkins_1794_continued.htm (accessed 3 August 2003). [viii] Reynolds, Frontier, p 190. [ix] McAllister and Geno, class Statusand Land Conflict, p 119. [x] See generally Henry Reynolds, Frontier: Aborigines, Settlers and and decision paper, Land . Allen and Unwin, St Leonards, 1987, p. 190. [xi] McAllister and Geno, Class, Status and Land Conflict, p. 119. [xii] Davison, 'The great Australian sprawl', Historic Environment , Vol 1, No 13 (1997), p.10.
[xiii] Anthony Trollope, in ibid, p. 13. [xv] See entry on ecology essay Torrens System in Australian Encyclopedia , 6 th ed., Australian Geographic, Sydney, 1988. [xvi] James Inglis, in essay on save water, Birmingham, Leviathan , p. 201. [xvii] Robyn Hollander, ‘Every man's right: Queensland Labor and home ownership 1915-1957', Queensland Review , Vol.2, No.2, 1995, p. 56. [xviii] Terry Burke, ‘Private rental in Australia', Swinburne Institute for Social Research, 1999. [xix] Jed Donoghue, Bruce Tranter and Robert White, Australian dreams: Home ownership, share ownership and Coalition policy, paper presented to Jubilee conference of the ap biology essay questions, Australasian Political Studies Association Australian National University, Canberra, October 2002, p. 2. [xx] Felix Dittmer (Member for Mt Gravatt), quoted in Hollander, ‘Every man's right', p. 63. [xxi] Phillips Co, ‘How fortunes are made, or sensible talk to those in what is a about papers, search of wealth' (1886), in Maurice Daly, Sydney boom, Sydney bust , Allen Unwin, North Sydney (1982), p. 132. [xxii] See negative gearing by income group in Australian Tax Office, Taxation Statistics, 1999-2000 , Canberra, 2002. [xxiii] Andrew Beer, 'Housing investment and ecology ap biology essay, the private rental sector in Australia', Urban Studies , Vol 36, No 2 (1999), p. 260. [xxiv] Leonie Sandercock, in Maurice Daly, Sydney boom, Sydney bust , p. 150.
[xxv] For the housing mix in Australian cities since the l960s see Peter Spearritt, Sydney's Century , 2000. and J.Brian McLoughlin, Shaping Melbourne's Future , Cambridge University Press 1992. [xxvi] PH Fekete, in ibid, p.8. [xxvii] There is no adequate history of the real estate or development industry in Australia, although there are histories of essay water 2010 some individual companies. The most reliable published accounts are to be found in entries in the Australian Dictionary of Biography. See in ap biology essay, particular the what, entries on Tomy Bent, Sir Arthur Rickard, L.J.Hooker, Alfred Grant and Stanley Korman. [xxviii] DJ Dunstan, in Ross Fitzgerald, A history of ecology essay questions Queensland from 1915 to the 1980s , UQP: St Lucia, 1984, p. 471. [xxix] See Peter Spearritt ‘The privatisation of 2010 public space' in Pat Troy ed.
Equity Environment Efficiency, MUP 2000t On the destruction of questions Bright Point headland and essay 2010, the Nelly Marina development, including the sale of government-subsidised waterfront blocks, see the account in. [xxx] Stephen Brouwer, 'The saga of Ocean Shores', Australian Financial Review: Weekend Review , 9 March 1990, p. 8. [xxxi] [cite most relevant Bond biog] [xxxii] [refs to come for Cain, Bjelke and ecology, Beattie] [xxxiii] On Burke see Richard Aitken's entry in qualitative vs quantitative research essays, Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens , OUP, 2002. [xxxiv] See Kingsley Gum and Peter Spearritt, The Green Space Audit , Brisbane Institute, 2003, pp.1-4. [xxxv] A phenomenon noted recently in John Stensholt and Amanda Gome, 'Flat broke', Business Review Weekly , July 3-9 2003, pp.14-16. [xxxvi] Paul Toohey, 'Recognising the right people', The Australian , 7 June 2002.
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Ecological succession ap biology essays
komninos essay The English Teachers’ Association [NSW] • Issue 1March 2004 • www.englishteacher.com.au. While I Live , the first novel in ecology ap biology The Ellie Chronicles by essay John. Fil texts: The Age of Innocence and The Truman Show. More resources for ap biology essay, the Area Of Study (Journeys) Hamlet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Cultural Values in Young Adult Fiction: Baily’s Bones, Bridge. An Interview with Seamus Heaney at his home in is a closing about papers Dublin.
Sir Richard Eyre’s BBC production of King Lear. Teen Romance Texts and the ‘Real’ Curriculum. The poetry of Peter Skrzyneckiand Komninos. mETAphor Issue 1 2004 page1. Ways of Living – Komninos A module for ecology questions, Standard English HSC. by Katherina Lathouras Knox Grammar School.
‘Ways of living’ encompasses so many aspects of. our contemporary society that in fact the rubric. challenges us with possibly too much to consider. Komninos’ poetry for some seems difficult, for the. close analysis of the text can be challenging for the. Standard student who cannot grasp the impact of qualitative vs quantitative, the. use of lower case, the ecology ap biology essay lack of personal didion, punctuation, the use of. free verse and the colloquial approach to language. Much of the ecology poet’s approach is uncommon and. foreign for thinking and decision making paper, some Standard students, but it can be.
explained as a way that the poet challenges the. perception of its audience and ecology ap biology, of how a poet writes. For the Standard cohort who hates the ‘boring’ conventions of poetry, this may be a good option, but. be prepared for the fear of there being little to essay didion work. with because of the poems length and the fact these.
poems do not fit the conventions of ecology ap biology, ‘poetry’. In fact, the poems hold a lot of what about in research, connections with its audience. The poet explores subjects that the audience can. relate to in many ways because they too, at ap biology essay questions some. time , have probably experienced it. It is vs quantitative research essays far better to approach the module with the rubric. than the text in this case (in the first instance).
Breaking down the rubric into the following key points. provides the direction for the following teaching and. The rubric states that students should consider: • ways of living in contemporary society. • possibilities and ecology ap biology essay questions, choices for different ways. • recreations enjoyed shaped by personal, social , historical and cultural contexts. • respond and compose to a range of texts.
mETAphor Issue 1 2004 page60. • demonstrate the different ways of living which. are communicated and values. • examine features of south mexican, texts. • knowledge , attitudes and beliefs relating to. (English Stage 6, Prescriptions: Area of ap biology essay questions, Study. Electives and Texts, HSC 2004 2005, p.15) Depending on the strengths and/or weaknesses of.
the cohort, there are two activities that could assist. Standard students gain a sound knowledge of the. ‘ different ways of living’ that have impacted on personal the. Australian community. These activities would focus. on the first three points of the broken rubric. In groups research the ways of living in essay contemporary.
society . Research each decade starting from the. 1920’s (post World War I is a good starting point). -housing and/or accomodation. Each group presents to the class, either in vs quantitative research essays period. clothing or provide a piece from the period that. remains in ecology ap biology essay the class through the qualitative vs quantitative essays duration of their. course and ap biology questions, a visual cue to be later used as a study. artefact/text . A handout is to be submitted by each.
group with primary evidence or secondary evidence. of the time. This can then be the personal essay starting point for. related materials for ecology questions, the unit of essay, work (Link crosscurricular. work with Modern History students or ask. them to think back to their Stage 5 History core work). Using the following table, the student interviews three. different people who have lived through three different. decades in ap biology essay questions Australia , and is a closing paragraph about papers, relate their experiences to. historical research that the have discovered.
Students are to ecology essay write a report on on reality each interviewee. and relate their personal recollections to the social, historical and cultural possibilities and choices for. different ways of living. These activities could also be used as assessment. task . If being used as assessment, it would work best. to consider the rubric points of responding and. composing in a range of ap biology questions, texts, and essays, demonstrating. the different ways of living and how they are.
communicated and valued. Outcomes 6, 8 and 9 could be used for these. Each activity requires the ap biology essay questions students to engage with. the focus of the rubric, ‘Ways Of Living’. The activites have the cohort delves ‘hands on’ into. the focus assisting their general knowledge of the. module . This will assist their ability to south park mexican respond to ecology ap biology questions and. compose and demonstrate how different ways of. living are communicated and valued in the core texts. and the related materials that they have thus far.
Once. the texts are studied and related materials are further. developed , the last two rubric points can be worked. The Text Komninos the poet. What is interesting about the study of this poet is the. ability for outcome 5 to be assessed during this. module – analysising the effect of technology and.
medium on meaning. Komninos is a performance/ cyber poet. Resources are available on the Internet. The poet has his own website where his poetry is. Far more useful in the classroom, is that each poem. set for study, excluding ‘consumer rap’ has an audio. reading by Komninos.These are accessible through. http://spokenword.blog-city.com. The links have been. provided next to the titles of the poems set for study.
in this module. What becomes apparent after this. point is that the persona of the poem is what is a papers often the. poet – but it should not be taken that it always is. ‘ life in ap biology essay questions melbourne ’ http://spokenword.blog-city/ readblog.cfm ?BID =12150. The poet moves through three stages of how.
Melboune ‘lives’. And Decision Making! There are three distinctive ways of. living for ecology essay, the city: Tourism – the persona of the poem highlights several. landmarks that identify Melbourne , “the big ram/the. dog on the ticker box/the schizophrenic city/ ned kelly’s. Changing faces of a/the city – the persona explores. the changes to suburbs it grew up in, “to find carlton.
cappuccino coffee comfort/ and the continuing. cavalcade of/ manicured madonnas marching the. streets / pursued by essays on reality tv shows battallions of italian stallions.” Family links – the persona ends its visit discussing. its responses to its family, left behind after its.
relocation , “to find myself answering the same. question / to each family member I met/ yes I’m living. in sydney now/ yes my work is going well/ yes the. kids are growing/ and no it’s not time I cut my hair.” Each key area can be defined by how the ecology essay persona. considers Melbourne as a tourist trap, or their. changing face through population and the links.
through family and friends, “coming home again/ driving through months and years and decades”. Komninos looks forward to his return to essay on save 2010 Melbourne , “ my week has been/a blast into ecology ap biology essay questions the past/ a fast drive. past ”. It not only considers all the changes in essay 2010 the city. physical , it makes mention of ecology, how individuals change,
“ to find the same faces in essay didion the same places in the. same spaces./ to find lovers that once sucked and. bit and kissed and licked/ sitting/ sipping tea politiely / across caf tables/ discussing art/ and their latest. That second, or last stanza, relates to ecology essay questions the composer’s. mETAphor Issue 1 2004 page61. discussion of its life in qualitative Sydney . Questions! It distinctly sets apart. his life in Melbourne and its changing face to his. choice to live in Sydney and what the benefits are. The poem looks at a common discourse of didion, rivalry.
between states and their attractions. Ap Biology! What seems. apparent is that each state has a ‘different way of. living ’ that impacts on and decision a person’s choice to remain. there . Ecology! Each having its own appeal. The following site provides the composer’s personal. response to living and growing in Melbourne . http:// wordcircuits.com/gallery/childhood/index.html has an. incredible collage of images and spoken workds. telling the childhood of the and decision making paper poet.
‘ karunda , october , 1992’ readblog.cfm ?BID =12843. readblog.cfm ?BID =12842. readblog.cfm ?BID =12841. Travelling is a key part of questions, many people’s lives, either. overseas or within their own boarders.
Here. Komninos is considering the essays tv shows impact of ecology essay, tourism of. those who travel and tourism itself. There is the contrast between the tourists and the. experience of the persona (which seems to be. undoubtedly Komninos), “ i am on this side of the. bamboo curtain./ the side that charge meals to their. rooms and paragraph papers, pay with/ mastercard when they check. out ./ on ecology ap biology essay the other side, well it’s not really bamboo, it’s.
lattice and personal essay didion, hesian , on a sliding/ door set-up, suspended from the roof.” The experience of the. traveller within its own boarders to ecology essay questions those who have. travelled far - “that’s where the what closing in research papers backpackers eat./ it’s. cheaper ./ no tablecloths, no table service, no silver. cutlery and ap biology questions, / napkins stuffed into wine glasses./ no.
menus ./ justa blackboard and a bain marie .” Consider. the ways in qualitative research which Komninos is really challenging or. disregarding the experience of travelling according. to the conditions related to the experience. The lay-back nature of the service, “ maclean’s mouth. hasn’t been sighted for fifteen minutes./ a grolsch i.
ordered ./ fifteen minutes ago./ i get up and get it. myself from the ecology ap biology essay questions bar./ it’s good./ in a flute glass./ cold./ the best way to drink beer./ the oysters arrive./ delicious !” What is the what is a closing about in research papers impact of using the label of. the beer – Grolsch (an import beer) than referring to. an Australian label. There is then the distinct contrast of the tourist. experience and his own. Ap Biology Questions! The satiric tone is captured. as he mocks the tourists as they prance their bodies. “ for the gallery of japanese tourists./ for the fellow.
swimmers ”. This soon changes as the persona. reminds itself that he too is and decision a tourist, but a tourist in. his own country “and i’m feeling pretty happy with. myself in this chosen/ aloness /treating my self/ on this. side of the bamboo curtain/ for a change.” This poem reflects the interesting phenomeon of. ‘ reality travel programs’.
The travel industry may be. feeling the pinch of political events, but it would seem. that travelling is supposed to ecology impact on water 2010 the ‘way you. live ’. Ecology Ap Biology Questions! Through extensive travel as experiencing how. others live we are far more appreciative of our own. way of life, or through travelling within our own. borders , we are ‘changing the way’ we live. readblog.cfm ?BID =13932. This poem challenges perceptions that people have. of ‘lifestyles’ and south essay, the ways that they are seen or. believed or live.
In this poem the contrast is made. through what the ‘locals’ perceive through. appearance . The persona is first thought to be a bikie, then a truckie. It challenges the reader’s perceptions. Why would it be so difficult for ecology ap biology, the locals at 2010 this scene. to believe that who they thought was a bikie or truckie.
In this rather brief poem, many questions can be. asked about what people think of others ‘ways of. living ’. This is probably the opportune time to consider. related materials such as ‘Queer Eye for a Straight. Guy’ or ‘What NOT to Wear’. It can also be the best time to introduce the Support. materials supplied by ecology essay questions the Board of vs quantitative research, Studies ‘Workplace. and Community Texts’ – Applying for a Job. readblog.cfm ?BID =13095. In the eight lines of the poem, Komninos means to. explore the ecology ap biology importance of ‘milestones’.
He uses ‘the girls’ to challenge social conventions of. beauty and to show, ironically that all the making fuss and. hype leading to a special social event can be marred. and lost through the mistakes made later in the. It would seem that this is not just left in the hands of. ‘ the girls’ but all social groups. For those that do not understand or share this. experience , there is ap biology a wonderful photo essay (many. thanks to Karen Stapleton for this link) of essays, The. Gunnedah Ball.
The photo essay can be found at. mETAphor Issue 1 2004 page62. readblog.cfm ?BID =11818. ‘ eat ’ is about the several ironies related to health and. beauty . When considering the focus of ecology ap biology, this module, health and beauty relates to closing paragraph about papers different ways of living. in several ways. There are so many different. perspectives about health and beauty that it is ap biology questions no.
surprise that so many are getting mixed messages, which is the message from this piece. At the on save beginning of the poem, there are three very. prominent voices, that of the mother, the ecology ap biology essay father and. the grandmother. It is obvious that this extended. family live together which is one different way of living. that can be discussed at this point.
The persona is encouraged to eat as a child so that. he can be healthy and strong, because he should be. appreciative of what he has as others didn’t and don’t. have the same opportunities. But this suddenly. changes , “and at essay water 2010 thirteen years olf , the doctor said,
“ for your weight/ you should be seven foot four” The poem then moves to have three more prominent. voices , that of the mother, the father and the doctor. ( the absence of the grandmother has several. connotations ). The persona is essay then placed on a. plethora of diets “each new magazine mum would. rush out and buy it/ every new diet i was encouraged. The persona then discussing the and decision ways in which this.
dieting impacts on ecology essay questions him “but i didn’t get thin i only got. depressed ”. South Essay! The taunts and teasing at school and. the synonyms used for the word ‘fat’. But it is in the. final movement of the ecology essay questions poem that the persona makes. the mature realisation that “and the real person is. within your skin, behind the/ barriers and fears, and. that person is the one that counts, their thoughts/ and their ideas,”. readblog.cfm ?BID =12419.
The beginning of this poem has a variety of fonts. using the word ‘Christmas’. All the water 2010 different fonts can. be described as symbolic of the different ways. Christmas is spent universally. Mention should be.
made that there is only one that is not in English or. Wingdings and that is the ap biology Greek, which is obviously. a reflection of the poet’s Greek-Australian heritage. The first movement of the poem is very rhythmical, most unlike many of the other pieces set for study. The discussion is based on the concept of Christmas. in Australia as well as the global view “and it pleases. me to see/ when we all live in harmony/ and. harmony’s a thing I find/ each year around about this.
time / when everyone across the nation/ joins in. The poem then moves to seven short four line stanzas. with the tag of ‘at christmas ’. Qualitative Essays! He the persona is. describing his family. His Christmas, the family, the.
traditions , the noise, the festivities, the arguments. that we can all share in essay the understanding of. The poem returns at what closing about the end to the celebration across. Australia , specifying the places and ecology ap biology, the people and. how everyone, everywhere and anywhere will be. sharing in some moment that is common to their. This poem is probably the most accessible in terms. of an understanding of the essay didion module. The poet is. describing the way ‘we’ live challenging us to look at. ourselves , and our society and challenge the essay questions ways.
What is a disposable world? “ it’s a disposable world, i’ve heard people say/ use it once and throw it away”. The persona claims that he does not want to be. responsible for the “planet’s destruction”. Be it rubbish. or a credit world. What the personal essay persona argues is ecology ap biology essay questions ‘choice’.
That the world. and the consumer is not at tv shows ransom and ecology ap biology questions, that there is. the right to didion choose. The persona challenges you as. the reader to ecology ap biology essay be consumer ‘savvy’ – “don’t’ chase the. bargin , before you check the jargon” and tv shows, challenges. you to “demand your rights, consumers UNITE!”. Once again, there is the opportunity to use the Board. of Studies Support Materials ‘Workplace and. Community Texts’ – Being a Consumer.
Responding and Composing – just to essay questions get. ‘ life in melbourne ’ Compose five diary enteries (over a six month period) exploring how you feel about moving from essay 2010 one place. to another. This could be a town, a state or a country. Include your observations about the changes that you.
Respond to the following collage of ap biology essay, images and. spoken words about the poets childhood – http:// ‘ karunda , october , 1992’ “It’s all about the lifestyle!” In what ways are reality programs promoting a ‘ way.
of living’? How does the poetry of Komninos challenge. You are a backpacker. Compose three emails. mETAphor Issue 1 2004 page63. describing your adventures and how you feel you. have explored yourself through these travels. The.
emails are to be sent to: -your work mate/s. Compose a conversation between three distinctly. different personas. Write using their idioms and their. language approach (write as they ‘sound’). Compose a proposal for your ‘ideal’ formal. This is to.
presented to the your school Principal or Head and. Explore the ever growing debate about the eating. habits of children and adolescents. Class debate – “To eat or not to eat, that is the question” Recount your family Christmas family tradition.
Consider various magazines, newspapers and. television advertising. Essays! Decontruct the ways that the. pieces have been composed to sell their products. Rounding up the Module. Press upon the students that they are required to. know ALL poems set for study as the Board of ecology ap biology questions, Studies. do claim the right to prescribe the 2010 text in ecology ap biology essay questions the exam.
Reality/lifestyle programs (consider the key. presenters – what image is being sold, the areas of.